The Niagara Falls is rather considered as a drainage to the great lakes that plunges over an escarpment (Niagara Escarpment) of sedimentary rock. In addition to this its rather known to be traced from Northern New York State to Southern Ontario, Canada. For the most part the base of this escarpment is considered to be made up of Red Shale. From here it becomes overlain by 4 m of White Sandstone, 15 m of Gray green Shale, 12 m of Red and Green Shale, and so on. Each of these beds are strongly considered to be formed by a single rock type such as Sandstone, Limestone, Shale, or some uniform combination of this type called a Formation. More so each formation is considered to be named after a geographical locality that was describe by the first geologist who describe the rock, and designated the locality. Nevertheless, if much of this formation is identified to contain a single rock type, than that name can be followed by the geographic name in the designation of the formation. Lets say if the formation is considered to compose of two or more rock types that are interbedded, than its called a formation. Much of the Subdivisions within a formation are known to go by the term Members. Further so much of the formations that make up this geographical area are called Lockport Formation, Rochester Formation, Irondequoit formation, Reynales Formation, Thorold Formation, Grimsby Formation, the Cabot head Formation, Whirlpool Formation, and Queenston Formation.
Much of the Grimsby Formation is rather known to be made up of beds consisting of Red Shale, and Sandstone. In general being the Sandstone is rather determined to show fine internal layers which lie oblique to the planes that delimit the large beds. In other terms the structure is also referred as cross-bedding. The surface of these beds are rather considered to be marked by holes, grooves, fine ridges, and irregular sausages of sediment that penetrate the beds. Generally the Grains of the Sandstone are identified to be fine, well rounded, and coated with a thin film of Iron Oxides that gives them their Red Color. Fossilization is also evident within this formation as the Grooves, trails, and casts are known to be formed by animals which once inhabited the mud flats of an ancient shoreline. In some case the formation is known to contain no organic remains, but is rather characterized by a particular suite of fossils, and different types of preservation. Fossils are rather considered as the remains of an organism, or can also trace their existence, which are preserved in rock. In many case the study of fossilization is considered to be undertaken by Paleontology. Many organisms around the world are also known to be mainly composed of soft, and hard tissues. Light tissue is strongly considered to be composed of Carbon which is readily broken down by bacterial action when the organism dies. More so the Hard tissue is known for forming a skelton, shell or covering, and can also be composed of organic compounds, but, more commonly is known to be reinforced by mineral matter, such as calcium carbonate, Silica, Calcium Phosphate, and Etc. One rare type of fossil formation is also considered to included organisms that have been represerved whole, and unchange. Other fossilization is known to commonly occur within the Reynales Dolomite which contains crowd masses of regular cavities. Some more information on this can be revealed if the cavities are filled with a setting rubber compound, and the rock is dissolved away, than the cavities can be shown to have faces of fossil shells. As the rock becomes broken open then the sediment surface against which the shell once rested will preserve its size, shape, and ornamentation.
In several case the Niagara Escarpment is considered to extend for a distance of 250 km from New York into Ontario, Canada. The whole entire cress of the escarpment is considered to be the bed in which the water pours at Niagara (Lockport Dolomite). Even much of the beds that are similar in lithology, and the same thickness can also be observed at the top of the two other sections. Much of the Dolomite formation is also known to represent the same formation in each geological section. Generally the Reynale Dolomite formation is rather not change in lithology within these three sections, and may also be identified by a thin layer packed with the shells of the Brachiopod (Pentamerus Oblongus) at its base. Another change to the bed above and below the Reynales Dolomite are considered to not be the same of the three sections. Its rather stated that below the Niagara Falls the formation is known to be formed in a descending order that ranges from, white sandstone (Thorold), a red sandstone, and shale (Grimsby), a Gray shale (Cabot Head), and another white sandstone (Whirlpool).
Much of the formation of the Niagara Escarpment within Rochester, New York, is known to consist of Reynales that rest on the maplewood shale, Thorold Sandstone, and Red Standstone, and shale of the Grimsby Formation. In addition to this the north end of the escarpment known as Reynales is commonly underlain by a reddish, silty shale (Cabot Head), Grey Dolomite (Manitoulin), and white sandstone (Whirlpool). More so the Sandstone beds within this contact zone is known to be traced northward along the escarpment till it dies out in the Shale. Other geological events are know to occur when the shale is traced southward, and dies out within the Sandstone. Along the escarpment northward the Basal beds of the Grimsby Formation is known to commonly pass through the Cabot Head shale that extends north, which leaves nothing left of the Grimsby Formation. Additionally this interfinger of lithologies is known to show that the interfingering parts of these two formations was deposited at the same time. Its also a result of the lateral oscillation of the boundary within the environments of these deposits. More so the Oscillation is considered to be likely caused by changes within the supply of sand to the area of deposition. Another way this can also caused is by the changes in sea levels, or even the rate of subsidence of an area. Even more formations had occurred when much of the sand that was supply from the land to the southeast was great, and a bed of sandstone was built out by streams over the mud environment, and the sand-mud boundary had moved northward. When much of this supply had waned, the area also occupied by sand had shrank southward, and the mud once again became deposited ove the sand layer. At one point in time the sand environment of what is known as the Grimsby Formation had extended slowly northward over the mud of environment of the Cabot Head until this phase of sedimentation was ended by the deposition of the Thorold Sandstone.
Much of the relationship between the Cabot Head Shale, and the Manitoulin Dolomite at its base are strongly determined to be interfingered with each other. in general being the beds of Dolomite towards Niagara is also considered to interfinger with, and die out within the basal part of the shale until none of the formation is left. More so the gradation of the Grimsby Formation that travels into the Cabot Head Shale is called a facie change. The term facies are determined to refer to a total aspect of a sequence of strata, which includes lithological characters, bedding, structures, fossils, and can also include any other features that make the sequence distinctive. A facie change is rather considered to occur within a regional change in these charactures, and is a reflection of the changing conditions of a basin where the sedimentary rocks were being layed down. In addition to this the Niagara Escarpment is known to stretch from Lake Erie before it becomes thinner when it reaches Lake Huron.