History and Exploration
Within 1963, the Lac Des Iles Mine was discovered by two prospectors known as W. Baker and G. Moore during the June reconnaissance prospecting trip. These two prospector had rather discovered a widespread low-grade copper-nickel mineralization in ultra basic rock to the south of Lac De Iles. The property at this time became so encouraging that it had warranted additional time being spent in the area. It would also result in subsequently staking a major block of 175 contiguous claims that were staked, with considerable detailed prospecting, geological mapping, and geophysical work on about 38 claims. Geological work within the area had not been done, and a considerable amount of prospecting time was mainly focus on establishing the boundaries of the most favourable ultrabasic intrusive masses.
The Lac Des Iles Claims at this time were rather considered to have been access by airplane which ordinarily lands on Camp Lake, that's about one mile in length and is located near the center of the property. A small section of Spruce River Road, had rather taken off from Highway 17 about three miles east of the city limits of Port Arthur and commonly passes 11 to 12 miles east of the property. This had rather resulted in favorable conditions as an access road was considered to be fairly easy to construct as the intervening ground is mostly well drained and gently rolling. Other advantages that this site had given was that diamond drilling equipment could also be easily flown in from Edmonton Lake which is on Spruce River Road.
In 1963, prospecting along with exploration work had reported that the gabbro complex body lying south of Lac Des Iles, and commonly forms a plateau which typically rises steeply to about 200 feet above Lac Des Iles and slopes gently to the west, south, and east. Much of the surface that was in vicinity to the mineralization was also reported to have been gently rolling with a shallow cover of overburden consisting mostly of large boulders. Generally, the ultrabasic rock which was commonly referred as the Gabbro Complex is rather within contact with the granite-gneiss on the west. This gneiss was reported to have been medium grained light to dark gray rock which commonly has a ribbed appearance due to different erosion effects. Banding in this typical area was reported to have formed a fraction of an inch to a few inches thick and was mainly due to the differences in the ratio of light to dark minerals. Hardly no work was done in the intermediate area, and it had appeared to the prospectors that gneiss had appeared to be about 1 mile in width and had graded into massive gray granite to the west.
This also resulted in prospecting a peridotite body that’s from 1 ½ to 2 miles in diameter which was believed to have lain under the main part of Lac Des Iles. It was also generally observed at scattered locations due to the lake and thin diabase sill capping which covers most of the higher ground. Reports on the peridotite had stated that it was fairly rusty weathered, that was fine to medium-grained rock and had been considerably serpentinized. Much of the magnetic content was also considered to be high and therefore the aeromagnetic anomaly would have delineated its boundaries. In some case, minor fractures were also reported to have been fairly common and some of the outcrops were highly altered. Sulphides which typically occur on this property were considered to be very fine and sparse, but assay results had shown low nickel values of about 0.1 to 0.2% Ni.
There is also a body of mafic rock that’s commonly considered to be of various phases. that consists of gabbro, norite, anorthosite and pyroxenite that extends in a south-southwest direction from the main body of the Lac Des Iles peridotite. Generally, the ultrabasic body had rather appear at about six miles in length and its southern boundary was about four miles south of Lac Des Iles. It had also appeared to have a maximum width of a little more than two miles. This was also in addition to variations in mineral compositions as it varies from fine grained to very coarse grained pegmatite phases. Its magnetic properties were also considered to be very erratic. Almost all the rocks within the property were also reported to have carried no appreciable magnetite, but in some areas the magnetite content is over 50%. All of the occurances that typically included copper-nickel of any importance have been mainly found to date which lie within this assemblage or ultrabasic rocks.
Gabbro Gneiss was also located in one area that was situated near the southeast end of Center Lake. It was strongly considered to consist of typical gabbro which had been intruded by narrow acid dykes in a lit-par-lit fashion. It was also uncertain if this was considered as a distinctive rock type or if it rather had belong to faulted zone with the narrow acid dikes that intruded along the planes of the shearing.
Granite is typically hosted within the Gabbro Complex, which was in contact with a body of massive to medium grained biotite granite, which is pinkish red to red-brown in color. This granite was also considered to have only been examined near the gabbro contact and here it is distinctly porphyritic in texture. A total of three different outcrops were found in which the granite-gabbro contact is well exposed, and it is definitely established that the granite is intrusive into the gabbro.
It was in 1963, when the future Lac De Iles Mine would be optioned to Anaconda Canada Exploration, Ltd., and would additionally be acquired by the company. Anaconda Brass would than go onto leasing the property to Gunnex Limited, who had also acquired a large block of claims within the general area. Further prospect exploration work would end up resulting in discovering a total of eight sulphide zones. Some of these newly discovered sulphide zone had also contained palladium and platinum. It was at this time that Anaconda Canada Exploration had additionally optioned these claims from Gunnex in 1966. Diamond drilling at this time was additionally conducted on the property to determine the extend of these newly discovered sulphide mineralized zones.
By this time, it was reported that Anaconda Canada would drop these properties in 1973, which later they were acquired by Boston Bay Mines, Limited, who had optioned and staked them. Explorations at this time were focus on further extending known mineralization and geologically mapping the area. This had rather resulted in the location of a new sulphide zone, that was called the Roby Zone that renewed interest in the property. Sheridan Platinum had gotten involved with this project under joint venture agreements, in which Sheridan would conduct drilling on the future Las Des Iles Mine. Some of other work that was performed by this company would included detailed magnetic and electromagnetic surveying. These complete drill holes were rather considered to have also been divided into 10-foot lengths for assaying purposes. Core which was taken from this property was split in which one half of it had went to the assay laboratory. Assaying was commonly done for platinum group element by using the fire assay method. This was also conducted by Bell White Laboratories in Haileybury, and had later been requested to take samples for copper-nickel elements, and to also assay for gold. Several lower grade PGE, Cu, Ni, and Au values were obtained from drilling and from ongoing surface sampling.
One of the very first holes drilled was commonly known as P-1 that had intersected 0.290 oz Pd Group elements from 11 feet to 20 feet. This had also resulted in making intercepts of 0.14% Cu, and 0.11% Ni that came from diamond drill hole P-1. This hole was also done in extensive mineralization. The general width of this intercept had rather average 9 feet in length on the Roby Zone.
Another intersection in drill hole P – 1 had intersected 0.268 oz Pd Group Elements, with 0.05% Cu, and 0.03% Ni, that was taken from sample 2. This had also intersected with extensive mineralization from 20 to 30 feet. The general width of this intercept had rather average 10 feet.
A sample was also taken from 30 to 40 feet, which resulted in intercepts of 0.335 oz Pd group elements that was taken from drill hole P – 1. It had also intersected with extensive mineralization.
Sample No. 4 from drill hole P – 1 had returned 0.268 oz of Pd group element that was intersect from 40 to 50 feet. This was also done in extensive mineralization that was mainly conducted on the main Roby Zone. The general width of this intercepts was also extended from 10 feet.
Sample No. 5 from drill hole P – 1 had also returned 0.221 oz. Pd group elements from 50 to 60 feet and over a width of 10 feet. This was rather taken from the most extensive mineralization from the Roby Zone.
Sample No. 6 which was taken from drill hole P – 1 that intersected 0.145 oz Pd group elements from 60 to 70 feet, and over a width of 10 feet. This had also been taken from the extensive mineralization that was being further explored and sampled.
Sample No. 7, that was taken from drill hole P – 1 had intersected 0.229 oz Pd group elements and minor copper-nickel from 70 to 80 feet depth and over a width of 10 feet. This was also done in extensive mineralization that was aimed at taking average grades from the core collected from Drill Hole P – 1.
Sample No. 8 was also taken from drill hole P – 1, which had intersected 0.186 oz Pd group elements and minor copper-nickel from 80 to 90 feet depths, and over widths of 10 feet. The sample was also taken from the most extensive mineralization within the core that was aimed at establishing average grades.
Sample No. 9 was taken from drill hole P – 1 that intersected average grade values of 0.136 oz. Pd group elements and minor copper-nickel. Drill hole P – 1 had rather been done in the most extensive mineralization that was discovered within the Roby Zone. These intersections were commonly made from 90 to 100 feet depth, and over a width of 10 feet on the Roby Zone.
This also included sample 10 that was taken from drill hole P – 1, that had intersected 0.136 oz. Pd group elements, and minor copper-nickel. These were commonly taken from 100 to 110 feet depth and overa width of 10 feet in the most extensive mineralization on the Roby Zone.
Another sample known as 11 was also taken from drill hole P – 1 that had intersected 0.026 oz. Pd group elements, with minor copper-nickel. This was rather taken from 120 to 130 -foot depths, and over 10 foot widths that had came from the most extensive mineralization on the property.
Sample No.12, which was taken from drill hole P – 1 had intersected 0.088 oz. Pd Group Elements, with minor copper-nickel. This was taken from 120 to 130-foot depths and over widths of 10 feet, which was also done in extensive mineralization on the property.
Sample 13 was also taken from drill hole P – 1 which had intersected 0.056 oz. Pd group elements with minor copper-nickel. The sample was also taken from 130 to 140-foot depths, and had a width of 10 feet on the most extensive mineralization on the property.
Sample 14 had also been taken from drill hole P – 1, which intersected 0.029 oz. Pd group elements with minor copper-nickel. These were commonly intersected from 140 to 150 feet depths, and with a width of 10 feet in the most extensive mineralization on this property.
Sample 15, which was taken from drill hole P – 1, had intersected 0.009 oz. Pd group elements with minor copper-nickel. It was also taken from depths ranging from 150 to 160 feet and with a width of 10 feet in the most extensive mineralization on the property.
During 1975, representatives of Rustenburg Mine of South Africa had visited the property to analyze and take samples. Upon results the representatives of the Rustenburg Mine had seen that they had match the assays that were taken from Bell White Laboratory Reports. However, it was reported that the assays which were taken had also been slightly higher than that of Bell White as their assays had included gold values with platinum group element. Bell whites assays had also only covered PGE values and had not included the gold values that were rather minor with copper-nickel. Boston Bay Mines, Limited. had also optioned a portion of the property to Texasgulf Canada who had delineated the Roby Zone further before dropping the option on this property.
Within 1986, it was at this point in time when the property would see major changes as Madeleine Mines, Limited, had acquired 50% ownership of the leased claims from Sheridan Platinum Group in 1986. By this time Madeleine had rather entered into an agreement with the Platinum Group Mines, Limited. It was under this agreement that Madeleine Mine and Platinum Group Mines would work towards a final amalgamation which will see Madeleine acquiring a 100% interest in this property.
It was during 1988, when Madeleine Mines would continue exploration and site preparation at its newly acquired Lac Des Iles Platinum Group Metals Prospect. Further work at this site in 1988, had resulted in completing stripping, trenching, sampling, and metallurgical tests, as well as 1525 m of diamond drilling. Some construction was also laid out as building that were intended to house the crushing circuit and a machine shop as well as a living quarters. A second geological map was additionally prepared which resulted in giving professional geological information. Reports made by the company had stated that the area around Lac Des Iles is rather underlain by rocks of Precambrian Age. This would also included basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Lac Des Iles complex that were completely surrounded by much younger granites and tonalites. Other reports on the geology stated that there are also erosional remnants of the Keweenawan Diabase sills. There is also a small remnant of a sill like structure that was just south of the Roby Zone. Some of the major minerals which are associated with the Lac Des Iles Complex includes anorthosite, anorthositic grabbros, norite, pyroxenite, peridotite, serpentinite, quartz gabbro, and their altered equivalents.
It was in 1988, when Exploration and development had continued at the Lac Des Lles PGE mine that’s located near Thunder Bay. Expectations were rather made at this time as progress was made in securing a large tonnage of ore containing platinum-palladium. As the need for development and ore had continued, this would bring the mine closer to production as it was reported that the first production would by underway by June, 1988. Reports from J. Patrick Sheridan had rather reported that the Madeleine was expecting to produce 150,000 oz. of platinum group metals annually which had also included gold, copper, and nickel. J. Patrick Sheridan was considered a principal owner of Boston Bay Mine, Limited, after completing several diamond drill holes on this property. Drill had result in discovering wide spread PGE anomalies that warrant more work to further evaluate the property at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine Site. Plans at this time were initially made towards a large, low-cost, open-pit operation that would involve a shovel or scooptram that would envisioned to a depth of 600 to 700 feet, reported Mr. Sheridan. Madeline had rather still continued to option the Lac Des Iles Property from the Boston Bay Mines at this time. Production plans were aimed at building a 3000 ton per day milling facility that would be fed by four workers, one driller, one shovel operator, and two truck drivers. South Africa at this time was rather a world producer of PGE and is still is to this very day. Statements had also reported that the Lac Des Iles Mine is of similar characteristics to the operations being done in South Africa. Madeleine at this time had also transported a milling plant for its operation that was taken from a closed copper mine in Quebec, Gaspe area, and re-assembled at the former mine site, which is situated 40 miles north of Thunder Bay. Another fairly large type cabin that was being developed at the time had been aimed at accommodating the directors of the lodge, that had bordered and view over a lake. Further plans would also be aimed at shipping the mill concentrate to a reduction facility at Thunder Bay, where it was aimed a producing a matte, and would become shipped to the U.S. Some other plans were also made in hopes of building its very own refinery in Calgary, and had a total milling cost of $15 per ton, which also included mining and milling costs of $9 per ton. It was also in addition to the PGE, such as platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. Madeleine was also forecasting to produce nearly 20,000 oz. of Au, and 2 million pounds of copper and nickel annually.
T\he southern section of the property was also reported to have been divided into two different mafic units. This had included the Eastern Gabbro that is considered as a medium grained gabbro to norite, and is also oxide rich, sulphide poor. Its also the western gabbro that is coarsegrained and sometimes pegmatitic which consists of gabbro, norite, clinopyroxenite and minor anorthosite. Much of the latter parts were reported to have also been layered, steeply dipping, and contained copper, nickel, iron sulphides, and platinum group sulphides, arsenides, antimonites, and tellurides. Some of the principal platinum group elements that occur at the Lac Des Lles Mine are known to include Vysotskite, Braggite, Kotulskite, isomertiete, Merenskyite, Sperrylite, and stibiopalladinite,
Within 1987, Madeleine Mines had carried out a diamond drilling program during the winter months. This had included drilling 16 holes, which would end up totalling 11,319 feet. These holes that were collared had rather indicated that the Roby Zone is known to extend to depth and plunges to the south. However, Hole 86-14 on section 519 had suggested that the plunge may be quite steep. It was also this hole that had intersected 0.127 oz. per ton in PGE over190 feet, within which was a 60-foot intersection of 0.191 oz. PGE per ton between the 750 and 900-foot elevations. This drilling had also continued to outline the better grade mineralization of the Central Zone and the West Zone in the mineralization halo to the west of the Roby Zone. Results from diamond drilling are shown in the chart below
Hole Number 87-35 had intersected 0.106 oz PGE per ton from 50 to 70 feet with a width of 20 feet.
Hole Number 87-35 would also intersect 0.87 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet, and from 120 to 140 feet depth.
Hole Number 87-35 had intersected 0.047 oz. PGE per ton from 170 to 237 feet with a width of 37 feet.
Hole Number 87-36 had intersected 0.103 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 37 feet, and from 30 to 67 feet depth.
Hole Number 87-36 would also intersect 0.088 oz. PGE per ton with a width of 20 feet and from 170 to 190-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-36, had also intersected 0.55 oz. PGE per ton with a width of 80 feet and from 170 and 250-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-36 would also intersect 0.54 oz. PGE per ton with an average width of 60 feet, and from 380 to 440-foot depths.
Hole Number 87-37 had intersected 0.75 oz PGE per ton with an average width of 20 feet and from 40 to 60-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-37 had also intersected 0.094 oz. PGE per ton with an average width of 30 feet and from 170 to 140-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-37 would also included an intersection of 0.105 oz. PGE per ton with an average width of 40 feet.
Hole Number 87-38 had intersected 0.082 oz. PGE per ton with an average width of 90 feet, and from 50 to 140-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-39 would intersect 0.076 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 40 to 60-foot depths. This had also included intersections of 0.069 oz. PGE per ton with an average width of 30 feet, and from depths of 160 to 190 feet. It would also include an intercept of 0.113 oz. PGE per ton with an average width of 10 feet and from 260 to 270-foot depth. Another intersection that included 0.053 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 70 feet and from 250 to 320-foot depth. Further samples taken had given intercepts of 0.085 oz. PGE per ton with a width of 40 feet and from 370 to 410 feet depth. Another sample taken from this drill core had intersected 0.225 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 10 feet and from 550 to 560-foot depth. This would also include an intersection of 0.74 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 90 feet and from 470 to 560-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-40 had intersected 0.90 oz. per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 90 to 110-foot depths. This had also included an interception of 0.054 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 140 feet and from 50 to 190 feet depth. It would also included an interception of 0.61 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 167 feet, and from 340 to 507-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-41 had intersected 0.104 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 10 to 30-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-42 would intersect 0.19 oz PGE per ton over a width of 67 feet and from 3 to 70-foot depth. This would also included an interception of 0.157 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 97 feet and from 3 to 100-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-43 had intersected 0.176 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 60 feet and from 90 to 150-foot depth. It had also included an intercept of 0.127 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 230 feet and from 10 to 240-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-44 had intersected 0.078 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 160 to 180-foot depth. This would also include an intercept of 0.088 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 10 feet and from 250 to 260-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-45 would intercept 0.199 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 60 to 80-foot depth. It had also included an interception of 0.126 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 40 feet and from 50 to 90-foot depth. Another inception was made from 200 to 240 foot depth which resulted in 0.62 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 40 feet. This would also included an intercept of 0.086 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 10 feet and from 280 to 290-foot depth. Further incepts included 0.064 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 300 to 320-foot depth. It would also result in another intercept of 0.177 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 10 feet and from 460 to 470-foot depth. By this time another interception had included 0.132 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 10 feet and from 690 to 700-foot levels. One last intercept from this drill hole had included 0.068 oz PGE per ton over a width of 38 feet and from 670 to 708-foot depth.
Hole Number 87-46 had intercepted 0.056 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 40 feet and from 70 to 110 feet in depth. Prior to this, it would include another intercept of 0.095 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 10 feet and from 240 to 250-foot depth. Another intersection had included 0.054 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 60 feet and from 230 to 290-foot depth. One last intercept had included 0.084 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 10 feet and from 560 to 570-foot depth.
Drill Hole Number 87-48 would end up intersecting 0.11 oz PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 50 to 70-foot depth. It would also include an intercept of 0.051 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 140 feet and from depths of 10 to 150 feet. Another intercept from this hole had returned 0.068 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 230 to 250-foot depth.
Drill Hole Number 87-49 would return intercepts of 0.076 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 20 to 40-foot depth. It would also include an intercept of 0.046 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 100 feet and from 80 to 180-foot depth. Prior to this, it had also resulted in a intercept of 0.55 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 60 feet and from 220 to 280-foot depth. Another interception had included 0.055 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 60 feet and from 350 to 410-foot depth. Further interceptions from this hole included 0.051 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 160 feet and from 460 to 620-foot depth. One last interception had included 0.048 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 50 feet and from 680 to 730-foot depth.
Drill Hole Number 87-50 would include an interception of 0.048 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 60 feet and from 30 to 90 feet. It would also include an intercept of 0.047 oz. PGE per ton over a width of 20 feet and from 220 to 240-foot depth. Another intercept had included 0.050 0z. PGE per ton over a width of 130 feet, and from 300 to 430-foot depth. Further intercepts from this hole had included 0.046 oz. Per ton over a width of 50 feet and from 560 to 610-foot depth.
Sampling that was done had rather been completed in 10-foot section, which the core had been halved either by splitting or diamond saw. It was also one half of the split core that was sent for assay, and the corresponding half was kept for records of drilling. Some of the most promising sections in the hole were sent for assaying, but because of the difficulty of visually assessing the mineralization, all of the core had been split and sent for assay. Diamond drilling was also conducted on the low-grade halo to the west of the Roby Zone, which a number of holes have indicated two bands of higher grade, the Central Zone and the West Zone as indicated in the following assays:
Hole No. 86-7 - 0.112 oz. PGE over 54 feet – 0.10 oz. PGE over 84 feet
Hole No. 86-16 – 0.102 oz. PGE over 90 feet width – 0.137 oz PGE over 60 feet
Hole No. 86-22 – 0.101 oz. PGE over 90 feet.
Hole 86-16 – 0.68 oz. PGE over 110 feet
Hole 87-38 – 0.082 oz. PGE over 90 feet
Hole 87-39 – 0.085 oz. PGE over 40 feet
Its also between sections 505 and 512, and to a depth of 700 feet that would indicate 49,000,000 tons with an average grade of 0.085 oz. PGE per ton. Its also the northern extension of the central and west zones that rather remain to be drilled. Drilling was rather contract by tow contractors known as Ed Colbert of Timmins, and D and S Drilling of Kenora, Ontario, Canada. It was also by this time when the company had completed 935,000 cubic yards of trenching over the Roby Zone to expose the ore and to determine its limits for the open pit proposal. Trenching which was conducted from the surface had also resulted in a fairly large bulk sample for metallurgical purposes.
Even more palladium and platinum minerals had been found in several zones on the Lac Des Lles Property by 1988. Some of the most important zones that were being explored to dated had included the Roby Zone and the C Zone. It was rather the Roby Zone that had received the most investigation and is the zone of immediate economic potential. This zone was typically considered to have been able to be developed and place into production through open pit mining operations. In order to considered open pit mining operations the Madeleine Mines would have to additionally clear of 34 acres of land. The strike of the Roby Zone was also estimated to have been approximately N 20 degrees W, which dips vertically to steeply east and extends for some 2,000 feet. One of the deepest drill holes to date, which was Hole D-1, had rather shown that the mineralization extends downwards to 1,465 feet, and was open at depth. It was also within this hole that section from 1,095 feet to 1,245 feet had average 0.235 platinum group metals per ton and from 1,254 to 1,465 feet had average 0.0725 ounces PGE per ton. The Roby Mineralization is rather considered to have been syngenetic and a product of magmatic segregation and magma mixing.
It was also estimated that an open-pit on this zone would also have a total length of 1,700 feet and an average width of 83 feet. Glenn R. Clark was one of the P. Eng, who had estimated that an open pit reserve at the Roby Zone to 500 feet of 6,490,000 tons with an average grade of 0.18 ounces of platinum group metals per ton, 0.01 oz, of Au per ton, 0.10% Cu, and 0.10% Ni. Other subsequent assays had also indicated an average grade of 0.02 oz. gold per ton. Its main reserve calculation was additionally based on 52 drill holes, totalling 32,000 feet of drilling that was conducted on this zone. Another estimation by Clark was made on the C Zone that contained an estimate of 900,000 tons with an average grade of 0.14 oz. PGE metals per ton. In total, the reserves down to 1,500 feet were also estimated at 20,400,000 tons with an average grade of 0.18 oz. PGE per ton. Other relations were made towards the Roby, C Zone, H Zone, and B Zone which were rather closely related to the West Gabbro-East Gabbro Contact. Its also the platinum and palladium mineralization that wasn’t considered to be directly related to the total sulphide present. Heavier concentrations of platinum group elements had also occurred within the clinopyroxenite in proximity to the West Gabbro-East Gabbro Contact, and also in the mineralized norites of the West Gabbro. Platinum and Palladium ore are amenable to concentration by flotation, which the recovery circuit would use gravity ahead of flotation. Some of the much earlier indications had also showed a high-grade jig concentrate. Other intentions were made towards treating the concentrate in the hydrometallurgical facility. These concentrates would be pressure leached and produce a PGE Rich residue which would be sent to the refinery. This results in a combined recovery of the significant metals of approximately 85% that would be expected from the combined gravity and flotation circuit. Flotation tests during this time period were also being conducted by four laboratories including Falconbridge, Placer, and Noranda. Other expectations on this had stated that minor recoverable amounts of Rhodium, Ruthenium, Osmium, and Iridium would be produced.
Some of the main exploration programs that were done by Madeleine Mines had included diamond drilling and rock trenching, along with stripping. The main purpose for the diamond drilling was to further detail the ore reserves, explore the extensions of the Roby Zone to depth, and to search for higher-grade zones in much larger mineralization halo to the west of the Roby Zone. Trenching was generally carried out over the Roby Zone in order to further expose the ore and to determine its limits for the future open pit operation. This had also provided a bulk sample for metallurgical purposes in order to get this project from exploration stages into development and mining stages.
Within 1989, Madeleine Mines had continued with site preparation of its Lac Des Iles Platinum Group Metal Prospect. Some major work had take place during this time period that included the removal of overburden at the Open Pit proposal site, the installation of a crushing circuit, and flotation cells. It was also within 1989, when the very first blast had taken within the proposed open-pit operation at the Lac Des Iles PGE Project.
Major steps were taken towards developing this mine within the year of 1990, when construction of the mill had taken place from 1987, and was completed on December, 1990. The pace of the construction activity in 1990 was far more greater than previous years due to the increased workforce which was approximately 30 for the first half of the years and 60 for the second half. This included designing a foundation for the milling facility that was poured in 1987, with the main mill building erected in January, 1989. This site is rather situated at a distance of 75 km north of Thunder Bay, and the mineralization is commonly hosted by the Lac Des Iles Complex which typically intrudes Wabigoon Subprovince tonalite. Much of the mill during this time period had also consisted of a large jaw crusher, an outdoor mobile crushing circuit with a small jaw crusher, and 2 cone crusher, powered by two 450 and 500 kilowatt, 600 volt truck mounted generators. Crushing from this circuit was rather operated in the fall of 1990, when it was commonly producing 8,000 tons of minus ¾ stockpile. This stockpile had once sat over a feeder tunnel, and conveyor which feeds the two-stage grinding circuits. The general design of the grinding circuit had rather consisted of a 1 rod mill, 3 ball mills, and a 4 cyclone cluster mounted above mills. Its also the cyclone over flow that proceeds to much rougher flotation cells via conditioner tank where primary concentrates are floated off. From here, the concentration become purified in much cleaner cells, in which the concentrate is then processed on riffle tables. Concentrates then become dewatered in a disc filter that capable of achieving an 8% moisture level. Much of the slurry also become conditioned with the following reagent: NaCO3, Carboxy Methyl Celluose, CuSO4 Potassium Anyl Xantrate, A208, Dowfroth 250C, and NaS. Its also the rougher flotation tails that are further processed within scavenger cells, in which all tails end up in an outdoor, inground, and thickener, where the mill water is decanted and recirculated within a closed circuit. Milling expectations within 1990, were aimed at reaching 3,000 ton per day capacity and could also be tested before the years end. The mill itself was commonly considered to have been additionally powered by three 1,750 kilowatt, 480 volt truck mounted generators. In addition to mine site activity, it was also reported that Madeleine Mines was confined to preparing for overburden removal on other mineralized zones at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine. By 1990, it was reported that Patrick Sheridan had now controlled nearly 90% of Boston Bay Mines, Limited. This company at the time was still optioning its Lac Des Iles PGE Mine to the Madeleine Mines, Limited who were progressing on developing this project.
By 1991, it was reported that Kaiser Francis Oil Co. had took nearly 15.6% stake of the Boston Bay Mines. This was rather a major take over as the company would go onto acquiring nearly 1.4 million common shares of Madeleine Mines, Ltd. From Patrick Sheridan who was the President of the company. This would go onward as the company had increased its stake by taking nearly 32% ownership of the company. Patrick Sheridan at this time was also commonly replaced as president of the company when his position was taken over by Dale McDoulett of Kaiser Francis Oil. He had also gotten the company slowly but surely running as discussions were made with the Ministry of Environment that had shortly after taken place. This had resulted in taking up the necessary permitting applications that could be approved by April, 1992, in the meantime, testing of the mill had continued onward.
Within this time period Madeleine had rather began some of the very first of many mill test runs of it Lac Des Iles Mill. For the most part, it was the low-grade mineralization that became extracted by open pit mining methods from what is known as the Roby Zone that was used during testing. Most of these tests would rather occur intermittently with mill modifications and repairs that were ongoing in 1991. It was during the month of February, when Madeleine Mines, was officially charge under the Environmental Protection Act and the Ontario Water Resource Act.
Development along with production was commonly reported to have continued to progress in order to bring the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine into production. It was at this time when the Roby Zone had been stripped, and geologically mapped, and nearly 1200 m of diamond drilling was carried out on this zone and other zones. Further upgrades would also be made towards the roadway in which would result in preparing the tailings pond for development. Other major contributions towards this project was aimed at setting up environmental friendly research labs that were in assistance with the University of Guelph, the University of Michigan, and the Lakes Research Branch of the National Waters Research Institution, Environment Canada. Most of this was aimed at further testing metal contamination in a wide variety of flora, and fauna from the tailings produced during mill tests. This would also included other investigations that were aimed at investigating vegetation types for the use within the site and tailings stabilization. Permits were also received at this time when the company had obtained the necessary permits with the exception of that necessary for effluent discharges. Ore reserves which were published at this time had amounted to 22.6 million tons of ore grading in excess of 0.19 oz. per ton in PGE, and 0.02 oz. Au per ton.
It was within 1993, when development had continued to progress onward, and the Lac Iles PGE Mine would achieve it first production. One of the very first shipments of concentrate that came from this mine had been shipped on December, 15, 1994, in which all the concentrate was obtained by Falconbridge. This would also mark the mines very first opening in regards to further developing this project by the means of open-pit mining operations. Expectations during 1994, were also made in regard to shipping between 20,000 to 30,000 tonnes of concentrate per a year from treating 1,000,000 tons of ore. Recoveries from this ore would also go onto producing 3.7 million grams of palladium, 187,000 grams of platinum, 373,000 grams of gold, 680,000 kilograms of copper, and 454,000 kilograms of nickel annually. Ore which was milled at the time had also contained 0.18 ounces PGE per ton, 0.01 oz Au/ton, 0.10% Cu and 0.10% Ni. Estimations on the production from the open pit at the Roby Zone was commonly reported to have a production life up to seven years, and to a depth of 150 m. Employment at the time was reported to have between 60 to 65 personnel in addition to a trucking contractor. It was also at this time when Madeleine Mines, would become renamed into North American Palladium, Ltd., following a merge.
Problems were shortly after encountered in 1994, which was the result of North American Palladium owing some capital to Patrick Sheridan. This resulted in settling the legal dispute between the company and Patrick Sheridan as North American Palladium Ltd, had bought his interest in the mine. Most of this was mainly the result of exchange that would entitle Patrick Sheridan to some cash, shares, and a 3% Royalty, which was later increased to 5% of the total net cash proceeds. However, it was during this time period when the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine had its very first full year of production. Milling within this time period was also reported to have been operating at 2,500 ton of ore per day. The Lac Des Iles Concentrator was mainly aimed at recovering palladium, platinum, gold, copper, and nickel from the ore that was mine within the Roby Zone. From here, much of the concentrates that were produced had been shipped to Falconbridge, Limited’s smelter in Falconbridge. Much of the ore within this time period was reported to have graded at an average of 0.18 oz. PGE per ton, 0.01 oz. Au, per ton, 0.10% Cu per ton, and 0.10% Ni per ton in ore. Expectations within this time period were also aiming at producing 120,000 ounces of Palladium, 6,000 oz. of Platinum, 12,000 oz. of gold, 1.5 million pounds of copper, and 1 million tons of nickel per year. Open pit mining operations within this time period were also progressing fairly well as the Lac Des Iles PGM Mine was now becoming very well developed.
North American Palladium at this time had also made its very own subsidiary company which became known as the Lac Des Iles Mines, Limited in 1995. Production at this time was mainly aimed at recovering ore from the Roby Zone that contained palladium, platinum, gold, copper, nickel, and other PGE’s. Within this time period the total production of ore that had been taken from the Roby Zone, had amounted to 803,732 tons, of which 743,580 was milled. A major tonnage of waste rock and overburden had also became removed from the Roby Zone that was being mine by open pitting. Concentrates that were produced from the company’s concentrator were also being shipped by truck, and would become processed in Falconbridge, ON, CAN. Some other changes were made in regards to increasing the mill capacity with the addition of a permanent primary and secondary crushers, more flotation cells, replacement of the diesel generators with a powerline, and the construction of other facilities. By this time there was also many known mineralized zones that had required additional exploratory work. Diamond drilling at this time had resulted in completing a total of fifty six diamond drill holes, totalling 26,000 feet. Most of this was aimed a further exploring the known mineralized zones that were commonly identified as the C, D, G, and Twilight Zones. It was also on very deep hole that had intersected the Roby Zone at a vertical depth of nearly 1,200 feet below the surface. During this time period it was also stated that Phase 1 of the bulk sampling was done on the C Zone, which added to additional ore reserves within the Roby Zone Pit.
Major exploration programs would end up starting up at Lac Des Iles PGM Mine, that’s located near Thunder Bay in 1999. It was during this time period when a major diamond drilling program that would end up totalling 166,000 feet from 162 diamond drill holes. Within this time period, North American Palladium would receive a much positive detailed feasibility study on the proposed major expansion of the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine. This feasibility study was mainly prepared by AGRA Simons Limited and had also supported an expansion of the operation of 15,000 tonnes of ore per day, from the current 2,400 tonnes per day. Conclusions that were made by AGRA Simons had concluded that this foremost expansion was technically feasible and economically viable and had recommended its development as an Open Pit mining operation that would be combined with ore processing facilities to produce a bulk flotation concentrate. Reports on the expanded operation were rather aimed at producing an annual average of 248,900 ounces of palladium, 24,200 ounces of Platinum, 19,100 ounces gold, plus copper, nickel, and cobalt over an eleven year mine life. Much of this feasibility study was mainly aimed at following core drilling during 1999, which would significantly increase the geological resource at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine to over 5.0 million ounces of Palladium. Results from this feasibility study would also report new mineable proven and probable ore reserves of 74.2 million tonnes with an average grade of 1.64 oz. Pd, 0.18 oz. Pt, 0.14 oz g/t Au, 0.066% Cu, and 0.055% Ni. Reserves were also considered to be diluted only on the eastern side of this deposit, where high-grade, reserve blocks in contact with the barren hanging wall are diluted by 15%. The average strip radio of the life of this mine was also regarded as 2.26:1. Other ore reserve estimations were being made in regards to 23.5 million tonnes at 1.46 g/t Pd, 0.18 g/t Pt, 0.11 g/t Au, 0.049% Cu, and 0.052% Ni, which is located outside of the propose pit shell. Production that came from the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine had rather treated 3,859,331 tons, which ended up recovering 346,434 oz. Pd, 23,195 oz. Pt, 21,547 oz. Au, 5,276,400 Lbs. Cu, and 4,161,166 lbs. Ni.
In 1999, North American Platinum had rather conducted extensive diamond drilling that amounted to the completion of 49,000 m of diamond drilling. Most of this was aimed at further increasing the measured and indicated ore reserves to 94.1 million tonnes grading 1.66 G/T Pd, 0.18 G/T Pt, 0.14 g/t Au, 0.062% Cu, and 0.053% Ni. Exploratory work that was done within the Lac Des Iles Region was mainly aimed at detailed prospecting, overburden removal, mapping, and bedrock sampling. Prospecting at this time had rather taken place within the Lac Des Iles Region, Tib Lake, and Buck Lake Properties that were systemically prospected, with over 3,000 samples collected. One of the highest assays which was obtained had resulted in 22.92 g/t Pd that came from a sample taken 2 km east of the main mine site. Extensive overburden removal was also being done to the east of the main Roby Zone that was being worked , and had resulted in mapping, and sampling. Sampling and mapping work was mainly aimed at further delineating new mineralized zones that had the potential to increase the ore reserves within the Roby Zone.
A large amount of money was raised during the year of 1999, when North American Palladium had ran into some set backs after years of being in debt. The company at this time had rather revised the feasibility study that was prepared by AGRA Simon’s from September, 1999, to early January, 2000. Results that came from this feasibility study was considered very encouraging, and the board had given the go-ahead on February, 2000, to a more than six fold expansion of the throughput. Raising money for this expansion had also changes stipulations a bit as the company was able to get a contract wit Autoco, signed two smelting and refining contracts, and a six-year labour agreement. It was at this time when permits would also become received for mining within a speedy 60 days of application, which demonstrates the support it had received from the government. Further expansions of the Lac Des Iles Site had only taken nearly 15 months to complete in full, and had started construction on April, 27, 2000, until commissioning in 2001.
Much of the ore is not considered to be a reef type deposit, as it was observed to have been a 2.69 billion year old diatreme, which was injected into an active, subvolcanic environment. This resulted in making the Roby Zone by at least 1 km by 1 km within a mapped area, and the deepest intercept was 830 m below the surface. Both, the Roby Zone and the Twilight Zone are considered to rather occur within a mafic/ultramafic Lac Des Iles intrusive complex. The Roby Zone is rather made up of 60 m wide blocks of various rock types, and individual breccia pipes which are mixed with varitextured gabbros. This mine primarily contains three distinct ore types which are referred as Breccia Ore, Shear Ore, and the North Roby Ore. Its also on the north side of the pit that contains the no-see’um ore containing no sulphides. One of the main ways in disclosing these types of deposits is also aimed at finding a big intrusion, which contains anomalous PGE and varitextured gabbros. Further indications were posted in relation to increasing proven and probable ore reserves that amounted to 96.2 million tonnes grading 1.55 g/t Pd, 0.17 g/t Pt, 0.12 g/t Au, 0.06% Cu, and 0.05% Ni. This would also go onto including measured and indicated ore reserves of 49.8 million tons grading 1.62 g/t Pd, 0.17 g/t Pt, 0.12 g/t Au, 0.05% Cu, and 0.05% Ni in 2000. Reserves plus resources contained was also reported to contain 7.4 million ounces of Palladium. Diamond drilling within 2000, was also commenced to further increase ore reserves on the Roby and Twilight Zones at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine Site. One of the main problems at this mine was rather caused by inefficiency of the low tonnage operation at this site. This at the time, had also been laid to rest by the completion of a new mine plan for much larger tonnage/lower grade reserves, and the purchase of a Cdn $42 million fleet of larger mobile equipment. It had rather consisted of seven 190-ton Komatsu 730E Trucks, with two more on order. This was rather replaced by the old fleet of 75 ton Caterpillar 777 trucks that were still being used. A total of two shovels were also purchased, which included an 18-m3 Komatsu 4000 and 23-m3 Komatsu 5500, as well as a 17-m3 Komatsu WA1200 front-end-loader. Other main supplies that were brought in towards the end of 2000, had included Driltech Mission DM55SP rotary drills, a Caterpillar 2D10 dozers and a caterpillar grader. It was also Transweet Mining System Inc., that had erected and serviced the vehicles that were being used at this mining operation. Other contracts were also awarded to Kal Tire who installs and services the large tires for the new fleet of machinery. All of the ore from the phase 2 Roby Pit was also stockpiled at the time to further allow for continuous milling operations during the Cdn $7.5 million preproduction stripping of the Phase 3 expansion of the main pit workings and the construction of the new processing plant. By adding this fleet to its mining operation, North American Palladium had increased the capacity required to complete the phase 2 mining on schedule, in October, 24, 2000. This additional fleet of machinery would go onto providing additional capacity to accelerate preproduction stripping. Stripping that was carried out had also began in July, 2000, and by the end of that year 4.1 million tonnes of overburden had been removed at a cost of Cdn $6.5 million. It would go onto including additional 600,000 tonnes of overburden that would become removed in 2001 at a cost of Cdn $1.0 million.
In 2000, the top of this pit was rather considered to have been at about 500 m above sea level, which was reported by Chief mine engineer Chris Turek. This was also in relation to developing the final pit bottom that would by at around 80 m above sea level. Mining, along with heavy machinery was also working on the 473 bench, which is 473 m above sea level. Ore within the Roby Zone is considered to extend virtually to the surface, which give it a life of mine waste: ore ratio of 2.16:1. Further proposed development had also been aimed at making the pit to be 1.5 km by 0.8 km, as it deepens, the pit will also have to be dewatered over time. Much of the pit walls are considered to also be presheared by using 15-cm-diameter holes that were drilled on 1.8 m spacing, for geotechnical wall control of the mine. Its also the main rock mass which had allowed for steep pit slopes, at 55, and benches that are 8-m high are drilled with 23-cm- diameter holes on a 5.3 m by 6.2 m pattern in both ore and waste. Blasting is rather done by using a blend of 65% emulsion and 35% Anfo, and a powder factor of 0.39 kg/tonne. This was rather initiated by row by row or subsequently, depending on the material. Loaders and shovels that are at work are commonly considered to fill the trucks in five passes. The 1 km haulage distance also increases as the pit become far more deepened, and a Minestar System rather ensures loaded trucks are sent to the correct ore or waste stockpiles. These five ore stockpiles are known to also include the three ore types which are separated into high-medium, and low-grade ore.
More so it was much of the flowsheet for the new plant that was based on test work carried out by Process Research Associates of Vancouver, in order to produce a high-grade rougher-cleaner concentrate. This also had included a much lower grade scavenger cleaner concentrate that would be use for low grade ore. Ore that comes from the stockpile is also hauled to the crusher where it become reduced to 144 mm and conveyed to an 18,000 tonne coarse ore stockpile. Coarse ore had also been generally conveyed into the plant by a 9.1 m diameter by 4.3 m long SAG mill where it becomes reduced. From here the -13 mm fraction reports to one of the two identical ball mills, which are 6.1 m diameter by 10.4 m long, where the ore is ground to 74 microns. Most of the SAG mill oversize had also went to a 2.1 m diameter shorthead cone crusher set to 13 mm, which was also classified as the Pebble Crusher. The refurbished pebble crusher was rather purchased for the new plant but did not function properly and had been the plants main piece of equipment in order to reach full capacity. By this time, it was also replaced in September, by a new Metso HP800 shorthead cone crusher in order to reach the desired capacity. Ball mill hydrocyclones had rather also discharged into conditioning tanks where reagents are further added. Some of the main concerns towards this operation was the ore being associated with magnesium oxide, as it was considered quite negative to the smelter if it forms more than 7% within the concentrate produce. A specialized chemical was rather used which included a carboxy methyl cellulose, which is a talc and silicate depressant. It had also been considered as a ratio thing that puts enough CMC to depress talc and silicate but nothing else. A total of two parallel flotation lines had rather been put in place, and about 60% of the recovery takes place in the two 50-m3 rougher flotation cells. This rather become followed by two rows of seven 130 m3 scavenger tank cells, and three stages of cleaning, which includes nine 38-m3 cell for the first stage, eight 3-m3 cell for the second stage, and two column cells, that are 1.3 m diameter by 11 m high, and operated in a series for the final stage.
During 2003, the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine that's was owned and operated by Lac Des Iles Mines, Limited, a wholly subsidiary of North American Palladium, Ltd., had produce 5,159,730 tonnes of ore. This at the time was a fairly big production as the Roby Zone was nearly producing 14,136 tonnes of ore on a daily basis. The main head-grade of this ore was also establish at 2.31 g/t Palladium. which ended up producing 288,703 ounces of palladium, 23,742 ounces of Platinum, 23,536 ounces of gold, 7,142,674 pounds of copper, and 4,070,785 pounds of nickel. Reports on the proven and probable ore reserves within the open pit were also calculated at 39 million tonnes, which had an average grade of 1.89 g/t Pd, and underground probable ore reserves of 4.98 million tonnes grading 5.88 g/t Palladium. This also resulted in the full completion of an underground feasibility study and magnetotelluric geophysical survey on the mine property. Production from this mining project was rather progressing at a much rapid stage then it had ever been developed at. The open pit mining operations were now becoming so extensive and production from the stopes being opened had produce more then enough ore to operate the on-site concentrator at this mine site.
By 2004, North American Palladium would go on to announcing its development of an underground mining operation at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine Site. This was mainly done in conjunction to a feasibility study that was rather prepared by ROSCOE POSTLE ASSOCIATES of Toronto, ON, CAN. Plans for the mine development were aimed at beginning in May, 2004, and the first production was anticipated in the third quarter of 2005. Further predictions on the production from the underground working were also being aimed at mining 700,000 tonnes of ore annually. In order to complete this major development program it would come with an estimate cost of $40 million. It would also go onto including an additional $15 million that was earmarked for leasing underground equipment for its Lac Des Iles PGE Mine. Development was mainly aimed at including a portal in the wall of the open pit, and to further develop this underground mining operation by long hole open stoping at a rate of 2000 tonnes/day. Preparations at the time were also made towards including a $10 million secondary crush that would be installed at a rate of 15,000 tonnes/day mill. Yearly production at the Lac Des Iles Mine was mainly aimed a recovering 300,000 oz. of Palladium for the next seven years from a combined open pit and underground mine. Total production that amounted for 2004, resulted in processing 5,298,544 tonnes of ore at 14,477 tons per day. The tonnage it self had also came with an average assay of 2.41 g/t Palladium, which would recover 308,931 oz. palladium, 25,128 oz. Platinum, 25,679 oz. of Gold, 7,836,183 pounds copper, and 4,320,970 pounds of nickel. Estimations were also made towards the proven and probable ore-reserves within the open pit that calculated a tonnage of 39 million grading 1.89 g/t Palladium. This also had consisted of proven and probable ore reserves within the underground workings that were calculated at 4.98 million tonnes grading 5.88 g/t palladium. Anticipations were also made towards accessing the underground workings in order to development and access the ore reserves of 3.5 million tonnes of ore grading 6.6 g/t palladium, 0.40 g/t platinum, and 0.3 g/t gold. By the end of 2004, the portal was well of as became developed and driven for a length of 400 m at the time.
North American Palladium had continued it major exploration program on the Offset High-Grade Zone at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine in 2007, and had also conducted joint venture explorations with Vale Inco on it Shebandowan West Project. Drilling that was confined to the upper portion of the Offset High-Grade Zone that was done through a newly excavated drift within the underground workings. Exploratory work at this time would also indicate that the Offset High-Grade Zone is open along strike to the north, south, and at depth. This had also added significant new resources to the mine and had also contributed to additional mine life at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine. Proven and Probable Ore Reserves from the LDI Open Pit had totalled 12,302,000 tons grading at 1.90 g/t Pd, and Probable reserves from the LDI Underground workings totalled 2,635,000 tons of 6.58 g/t Pd. It would go on to include an additional measured and indicated from the LDI open pit that totalled 23,684,000 tons of 1.48 g/t Pd, and inferred resource from the LDI underground of 12,794,000 tons of 5.25 g/t Pd. The total production during 2007, had also amounted to processing 5,006,383 tons at an average mill grade of 2.39 g/t Pd from which it had extracted 286,334 oz. Pd, 24,442 oz. Pl,20,092 oz. Au, 3,066,973 pounds of nickel, and 5,536,044 pounds of copper. Majority of the ore which was recovered had came from the open pit operations and a minor ore was mined through underground methods.
North American Palladium would continue to advance its 2 project near Thunder Bay, which included the Offset High-Grade Zone at it Lac Des Iles PGE Mine, and the Shebandowan West/Vale Inco joint venture project in 2008. Explorations at this time were mainly aimed at designing upgraded resources at the Offset High-Grade Zone. This also included other exploratory work in conjunction to its explorations on the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine Site. Some of other zones which were included with this exploration at resulted on the East Gabbro Breccia Zone, and conducted exploration on the VT North Rim, VT South Rim, and Creek Zones. It was also during this time period when North American Palladium had released an updated NI 43-101 technical report with an indicated resource estimate at its Offset High-Grade Zone of 12.3 million tonnes grading 5.02 g/t Pd, and 0.38 g/t Pt. With development progressing within the open pit and underground working the Lac Des Iles PGE mine was becoming a pretty big mining operation. It was also on October, 21, 2008, when the company would announce that it would place the Lac Des Iles Mine on care maintenance basis that would be effective on October, 25, 2008. Most of this was mainly caused due to depressed metal prices within the market that made the company suspended mining operations at its Lac Des Iles PGE Mine. It was also at this time when proven and probable ore reserves from the LDI Open Pit had totalled 11,241,000 tons at a grade of 1.82 g/t pd, 0.18 g/t pt, 0.15 g/t Au, 0.06% Cu, and 0.08% Ni. Another estimation of probable and proven ore reserves was taken from the LDI Underground workings that was estimated at 2,282,000 tons at a grade of 6.56 g/t Pd, 0.39 g/t Pt, 0.32 g/t Au, 0.06% Cu, and 0.08% Ni. By this time the measured and indicated resources within the LDI had totalled 22,034,000 tons at a grade of 1.36 g/t Pd, 0.18 g/t Pt, 0.10 g/t Au, 0.05% Cu, and 0.07% Ni. Indicated resources within the LDI underground workings were also estimated at 12,300,000 tons grading 5.03 g/t Pd, 0.38 g/t Pt, 0.32 g/t Au, 0.114% Cu, and 0.133% Ni. within the Offset High Grade Zone.
As the mine was place on care and maintenance throughout 2009, North American Palladium had continued to explore its Lac Des Iles PGE Mine Site. No production at the time was reported to have taken place prior to this closure that occurred from depressed metal prices within the market. By the end of December, 2009, North American Palladium would announce that the company will restart mining operations at the Lac Des Iles Mine in January, 2010. Mining operations were being aimed a resuming within the underground workings at the Roby Zone, and had expected to produce its first concentrate by the second quarter of 2010. Preparations were being made towards recovering 140,000 oz. Palladium for the next two years before developing the Offset High-Grade Zone in 2012. This would also result inirial development of a 1500 m ramp to access the Offset Zone located below and 250 m to the west of the Roby Zone. This would also be followed by a resource update that would be come establish towards the second quarter of 2010.
During 2009, the exploration program that was being conducted at this time was aimed at upgrading resources at the Offset high-grade zone, to explore potential new resources in the East Gabbro breccia Zone, and to conduct surface exploration programs on the VT North Rim and VT South Rim and Creek Zones. North American Palladoium would also go onto releasing an updated NI 43-101 technical report with an indicated resource estimate at its Offset High-Grade Zone of 12.3 million tons grading 5.02 g/t Pd, and 0.38 g/t Pt/ The total measured and indicated resources of the LDI open pit and underground mine, as of December, 31, 2008, totalled 36,038,000 tons grading 3.18 g/t Pd, 0.26 g/t Pt, 0.22 g/t Au, 0.072% Cu, and 0.086% Ni.
It was also within 2009, when North American Palladium had completed Phase 1 and Phase 2 drilling for a total of 73 infill holes and four exploration holes, totalling 36,500 m. Some of the main highlights from the phase 1 and phase 2 drilling are reported in the chart below for the Offset High-Grade Zone. Explorations within this time period would also discover two new sub-parallel zones, known as the Cowboy and Outlaw Zones. These newly discovered were intersect at the down section and to the west of the Offset Zone. The Cowboy Zone was considered to be quite similar to the Offset Zone, consisting of several mineralized subzones, and is open in all directions.
Several Drill Targets were also outlined from pervious and historic drilling and 15 holes that were drilled from within 150 m of the west wall of the LDI Open Pit. These were rather drilled within a north-south direction, perpendicular to all previous and historic holes drilled in the area. This was also confirmed by a follow up program of 11 additional drill holes that were underway to further expand the lateral and vertical limits of the 507 Pod. Some of the highlights from the assays are also given in the chart below for this drilling program.
The North Pit NVT Rim is located to the northeast of the Roby Zone, and had resulted in trenching and 17 surface drill holes to follow up on previous and historic drilling. Some of the highlights from the Assay results are indicated in the chart below by its zone.
Drill Hole No. Grade Over Phase Zones
DDH09-120 6.90 g/t Pd 5 m 1 Offset
DDH09-117 6.13 g/t Pd 17 m 1 Offset
DDH09-201 5.06 g/t Pd 7 m 1 Offset
DDH09-404 9.78 g/t Pd 19 m 2 Offset
DDH09-405 9.18 g/t Pd 28 m 2 Offset
DDH09-406 4.70 g/t Pd 194 m 2 Offset
DDG09-411 6.40 g/t Pd 83 m 2 Offset
DDH09-414 8.90 g/t Pd 19 m 2 Offset
DDH09-415 6.12 g/t Pd 42 m 2 Offset
DDH09-417 10.15 g/t Pd 22 m 2 Offset
DDH09-505 9.68 g/t Pd 16 m 2 Offset
DDH09-506 7.70 g/t Pd 37 m 2 Offset
DDH09-603 14.20 g/t Pd 12 m 2 Offset
DDH09-105 5.10 g/t Pd 4 m 1 Cowboy
DDH09-120 3.88 g/t Pd 4 m 1 Cowboy
DDH09-202 4.46 g/t Pd 5 m 1 Cowboy
DDH09-402 7.06 g/t Pd 5 m 2 Cowboy
DDH09-403 6.71 g/t Pd 5 m 2 Cowboy
DDH09-503 5.29 g/t Pd 8 m 2 Cowboy
DDH09-114 3.26 g/t Pd 22 m 1 Outlaw
DDH09-036 3.02 g/t Pd 28 m 1 West Pit
DDH09-039 3.45 g/t Pd 24 m 1 West Pit
DDH09-044 2.40 g/t Pd 6 m 1 West Pit
DDH09-078 7.90 g/t Pd 10 m 1 West Pit
DDH09-036 2.40 g/t Pd 25 m 1 North Pit NVT Rim
DDH09-039 1.10 g/t Pd 19 m 1 North Pit NVT RIm
DDH09-044 3.40 g/t Pd 8 m 1 North Pit NVT Rim
Trench 2 2.50 g/t Pd 2 m 1 North Pit NVT Rim
Trench 7 5.70 g/t Pd 2 m 1 North Pit NVT Rim
Trench 8 3.50 g/t Pd 3 m 1 North Pit NVT Rim
North American Palladium would budget an $8.8 million exploration program on their palladium properties within 2011. Most of the exploration at this time was mainly focus on targets within the Offset Zone, as well as the Cowboy, Outlaw, and Sheriff Zones at the Lac Des Iles Mine Property. Drilling that was carried out on the Offset Zone had generally been expanded several times throughout the year, initially consisting of 25,000 m program in the first quarter, expanding to 52,000 m in the second quarter, and then increasing again to 78,000 m in the third quarter. It was at this time that the company's primary target of exploration was the Offset Zone, but drilling had also continued on the Creek Zone, West Pit Area, and the newly discovered Sheriff Zone. A total of six holes had also been drilled on the North VT Rim, indicating a much narrow, but higher grade zones. The Baker Zone was also drilled which returned assay results of approximately 2 g/t Pd over several meters. During this time the Lac Des Iles Mine Concentrator would go onto processing 1,689,781 tonnes of ore at an average palladium head-grade of 3.70 g/t Pd, with a palladium recovery of 78.34%, in which 146,624 oz. of palladium was recovered. It was also at this time when measured and indicated resources from the Lac Des Iles Mine, had totalled 37,759,000 ton grading 3.39 g/t Pd, 0.26 g/t Pt, 0.21 g/t Au, 0.08% Cu, and 0.08% Ni. Proven and probable ore reserves were also estimated at 920,000 tonnes grading 5.81 g/t Pd, 0.40 g/t Pt, 0.34 g/t Au, 0.08% Cu, and 0.08% Ni. Almost all production was coming from the underground works while some had also been taken from the Open Pit mining operations.
North American Palladium would continue to progress with its major exploration program on the Lac Des Iles Property during 2012. This resulted in completing 50,148 m of exploration drilling, in which a total of 19,405 m of drilling was dedicated to surface exploration projects on the Sheriff Zone, North VT Rim, and other areas on the mine block intrusion. An additional 30,743 m were also drilled during underground exploration and infill programs targeting the Offset and Roby Zones. The chart below provides some of the diamond drilling highlights that were conducted on various zones to increase the mines life:
Zone Hole# From (M) To (M) Length (M) Pd (g/t) Pt (g/t) Au (g/t)
Offset-South 12-601 160 m 170 m 10 m 4.27 g/t 0.59 g/t 0.22 g/t
Offset South 12-601 161 m 165 m 4 m 7.47 g/t 1.01 g/t 0.33 g/t
Offset Upper 12-701 128 m 147 m 19 m 3.16 g/t 0.31 g/t 0.33 g/t
Offset Upper 12-703 228 m 233 m 5 m 5.25 g/t 0.50 g/t 0.52 g/t
Offset Upper 12-705 159 m 192 m 33 m 3.98 g/t 0.37 g/t 0.28 g/t
Offset Upper 12-705 171 m 175 m 4 m 14.88 g/t 1.06 g/t 0.87 g/t
Offset Upper 12-705 303 m 216 m 13 m 4.20 g/t 0.51 g/t 0.16 g/t
Offset Upper 12-706 197 m 218 m 21 m 4.19 g/t 0.51 g/t 0.30 g/t
Offset Upper 12-706 209 m 214 m 5 m 7.40 g/t 0.98 g/t 0.45 g/t
Offset Upper 12-708 271 m 277 m 6 m 4.23 g/t 0.46 g/t 0.48 g/t
Offset Upper 12-708 297 m 299 m 2 m 8.13 g/t 0.86 g/t 0.51 g/t
Offset Upper 12-709 307 m 311 m 4 m 8.92 g/t 0.78 g/t 0.49 g/t
Offset Infill 12-841 103 m 129 m 26 m 5.90 g/t 0.40 g/t 0.49 g/t
Sheriff 12-174 81 m 101 m 20 m 2.76 g/t 0.29 g/t 0.49 g/t
Sheriff 12-175 47 m 56 m 9 m 3.68 g/t 0.29 g/t 0.26 g/t
Sheriff 12-175 100 m 199 m 99 m 1.11 g/t 0.12 g/t 0.09 g/t
Sheriff 12-175 100 m 126 m 26 m 1.93 g/t 0.19 g/t 0.13 g/t
Sheriff 12-175 104 m 115 m 11 m 2.80 g/t 0.27 g/t 0.20 g/t
Sheriff 12-176 106 m 125 m 19 m 1.22 g/t 0.13 g/t 0.06 g/t
Sheriff 12-177 19 m 73 m 54 m 1.03 g/t 0.11 g/t 0.05 g/t
Sheriff 12-177 45 m 59 m 14 m 1.56 g/t 0.16 g/t 0.07 g/t
Sheriff 12-179 129 m 252 m 130 m 1.26 g/t 0.14 g/t 0.09 g/t
Sheriff 12-179 130 m 154 m 24 m 3.05 g/t 0.33 g/t 0.20 g/t
Sheriff 12-179 141 m 145 m 4,m 7.12 g/t 0.73 g/t 0.27 g/t
Sheriff 12-180 80 m 157 m 77 m 1.16 g/t 0.13 g/t 0.09 g/t
Sheriff 12-180 80 m 91 m 11 m 2.37 g/t 0.21 g/t 0.20 g/t
Sheriff 12-180 241 m 267 m 26 m 1.05 g/t 0.14 g/t 0.05 g/t
Sheriff 12-181 59 m 150 m 91 m 1.06 g/t 0.11 g/t 0.07 g/t
Sheriff 12-181 59 m 95 m 36 m 1.42 g/t 0.14 g/t 0.09 g/t
Sheriff 12-182 62 m 63 m 1 m 6.12 g/t 0.24 g/t 0.14 g/t
Sheriff 12-183 140 m 169 m 29 m 1.11 g/t 0.13 g/t 0.06 g/t
Sheriff 12-183 196 m 210 m 14 m 1.63 g/t 0.19 g/t 0.14 g/t
Sheriff 12-185 175 m 281 m 106 m 1.40 g/t 0.16 g/t 0.10 g/t
Sheriff 12-185 183 m 190 m 7 m 2.65 g/t 0.26 g/t 0.14 g/t
Sheriff 12-185 327 m 332 m 5 m 4.68 g/t 0.53 g/t 0.36 g/t
Roby North 12-259 160 m 165 m 5 m 13.37 g/t 0.57 g/t 0.23 g/t
Roby North 12-261 168 m 172 m 4 m 5.56 g/t 0.30 g/t 0.05 g/t
Roby North 12-262 169 m 175 m 6 m 4.70 g/t 0.28 g/t 0.05 g/t
Roby North 12-262 193 m 200 m 7 m 7.09 g/t 0.33 g/t 0.31 g/t
Roby North 12-269 138 m 162 m 24 m 23.35 g/t 0.98 g/t 0.68 g/t
Roby North 12-269 146 m 149 m 3 m 104.20 g/t 4.30 g/t 4.13 g/t
North VT Rim 12-031 18 m 22 m 4 m 4.67 g/t 0.26 g/t 0.06 g/t
North VT Rim 12-033 21 m 25 m 4 m 5.10 g/t 0.21 g/t 0.05 g/t
North VT Rim 12-034 15 m 31 m 16 m 2.21 g/t 0.14 g/t 0.02 g/t
North VT Rim 12-035 37 m 41 m 4 m 5.05 g/t 0.50 g/t 0.09 g/t
North VT Rim 12-036 18 m 24 m 6 m 12.40 g/t 0.38 g/t 0.16 g/t
North VT Rim 12-036 23 m 24 m 1 m 54.10 g/t 1.32 g/t 0.59 g/t
North VT RIM 12-037 18 m 32 m 14 m 1.98 g/t 0.12 g/t 0.04 g/t
North VT Rim 12-038 20 m 20 m 10 m 2.21 g/t 0.12 g/t 0.04 g/t
North VT Rim 12-039 21 m 28 m 7 m 4.70 g/t 0.18 g/t 0.07 g/t
North VT Rim 12-041 22 m 29 m 7 m 3.84 g/t 0.17 g/t 0.09 g/t
North VT Rim 12-042 24 m 31 m 7 m 6.29 g/t 0.24 g/t 0.16 g/t
North VT Rim 12-042 25 m 26 m 1 m 23.40 g/t 0.83 g/t 0.85 g/t
North VT Rim 12-043 14 m 15 m 1 m 21.00 g/t 1.18 g/t 0.06 g/t
North VT Rim 12-047 20 m 22 m 2 m 15.10 g/t 1.05 g/t 0.12 g/t
Within 2012, the production that came from this mine would go onto processing 2,063,260 tonnes of ore at an average palladium head-grade of 3.44 g/t, with a palladium recovery of 78%, in wich 163,980 oz. of palladium were recovered. It was during this time as the mine expansion project had continued, with the completion of the Head-Frame, main substation, hoist house building, service hoist, and auxiliary hoist. Much of the installation of the production hoist would also commence, with the commissioning scheduled for the first quarter of 2013. Other construction work was also being done on the surface that had remained to be completed which would include the installation of the main skip dump and surface ore bins. By the end of 2012, shaft sinking was already 60% complete, as it progress to a depth of 475 m below the surface. It was also at this time when Ramp Development was also progressing on schedule, with the installation of a loading pocket at the 740 m level scheduled for the first quarter of 2013. Other plans by this time were aimed at commencing production through the main shaft operation during the third quarter of 2013.
A total of 79 holes, totalling 19,288 m, were additionally completed on underground explorations and infill drilling, while an additional 27 surface drill holes, totalling 15,836 m, were completed on the Upper Offset Zone Southeast Extension Target.
This would also include an additional 38 drill holes, totalling 7216 m, which were completed on the Upper Roby Zone northeast extension target.
A total of 74 drill holes, totalling 13,936 m were completed on surface targets at the North VT Rim, Sheriff Zone, South VT Rim, Shorty Lake, Creek Zone, West, and North Sheriff Zone.
Hole Over Grade Zones
DDH 13-704 6 m 3.62 g/t Pd Offset South
DDH 13-707 8 m 4.58 g/t Pd Offset South
DDH 13-717 50 m 4.34 g/t Pd Offset South
DDH 13-804 36 m 7.68 g/t Pd Offset
DDH 13-813 41 m 6.13 g/t Pd Offset
DDH 13-844 42 m 5.23 g/t Pd Offset
DDH 13 218 16.3 m 2.44 g/t Pd Roby
DDH 13 226 17 m 2.13 g/t Pd Roby
DDH 13 228 4 m 9.20 g/t Pd Roby
DDH 13 236 3 m 16.35 g/t Pd Roby
DDH 13 240 24 m 1.79 g/t Pd Roby
DDH 13 118 16 m 10.15 g/t Pd North Sherriff
DDH 13 118 4.7 m 23.60 g/t Pd North Sherriff
DDH 13 119 12 m 2.06 g/t Pd North Sherriff
DDH 13 402 7 m 2.52 g/t Pd Creek West
DDH 13 001 10 m 3.44 g/t Pd Shortly Lake
It was also at this time that the measured mineral resources at the North VT Rim were estimated at 338,895 tons grading 2.02 g/t Pd (1.0 g/t Cutoff)The Sheriff Zone Deposit had contained a measured and indicated mineral resource of 5,280,000 tons grading 1.48 g/t Pd (1.0 g/t Cutoff).
Construction in 2013, had continued onward as the new Production Shaft was officially completed during 2013, with the first ore being hoisted to the surface from the Offset Zone Deposit in October of that year. Development of the new production shaft had been engineered to a depth of 825 m deep, and has a maxinum hoisting capacity of 8000 tons per day. It was mainly designed as a concrete lined shaft that is 6 m in diameter, with a convention back leg head-frame equipped with production, service, and auxiliary hoisting systems. It was also by December, 2013, when underground production at the Lac Des Iles Mine had increased to an average rate of 2,800 tons per day. Underground mining was anticipated in producing approximately 3000 tons of ore per day during the first half of 2014, with a gradual ramp-up in underground production to 5,000 tons per day by the years end. Estimations were also made on the proven and probable ore reserves that amounted to 15,045,000 tons at a grade of 2.77 g/t Pd. Production that came from this mine had also amounted to processing 2,048,083 tons of ore at an average palladium grade of 2.80 g/t Pd, in which the recovery was 135,158 oz. of palladium.
Surface drilling that was being done on the Roby Zone North East Extension Target would rather continue to expand a near surface part of this zone. Drilling had also resulted in several Roby Zone open pit grade intersections of palladium mineralization that were outline within the core. Some of the best intercepts would go on to include 2.44 g/t Pd over 16 m, and 2.13 g/t Pd over 17 m. The main objective that was taken upon the Upper Roby Zone North East Extension Drilling was aimed at connecting the undeveloped North VT Rim West Resource to the Northeast end of the Roby Zone Open Pit, which would go onto providing a potential future of surface mining for the North American Palladium in 2013. Some other highlight from these drilling intercepts had returned 2.44 g/t Pd over 16.3 m from DDH 13-218, DDH 12-226 had returned 2.13 g/t Pd over 17 m, DDH 13-228 would intercept 9.20 g/t Pd over 4 m, while DDH 13-236 had returned 16.35 g/t Pd over 3 m, and DDH 13-240 would return 1.79 g/t Pd over 24 m. These and previous results to date are considered to suggest that the Roby Zone does appear to connect to the North VT Rim along the southwest trending shears and in association with a southwest striking noritic layer with grades reporting both to structures and to Nordic layering. The Chart below provides some of the surface highlights for the second half of the Roby Zone Northeast Extension Target Drilling. A total of 28 surface drill holes, totalling 7,216 m were also completed at this time on the Roby Zone.
Drill Hole From (M) To (M) Length Pd Pt Au
13 - 217 269.0 m 280.0 m 11.0 m 1.86 g/t 0.17 g/t 0.02 g/t
13 - 217 269.0 m 270.0 m 1.0 m 9.40 g/t 0.54 g/t 0.05 g/t
13 - 218 306.7 m 323.0 m 16.3 m 2.44 g/t 0.16 g/t 0.03 g/t
13 - 218 316.0 m 319.0 m 3.0 m 5.48 g/t 0.27 g/t 0.03 g/t
13 - 226 22.0 m 39.0 m 17.0 m 2.13 g/t 0.15 g/t 0.07 g/t
13 - 226 27.0 m 35.0 m 8.0 m 3.97 g/t 0.25 g/t 0.04 g/t
13 - 226 27.0 m 30.0 m 3.0 m 6.22 g/t 0.40 g/t 0.03 g/t
13 - 227 23.0 m 31.0 m 8.0 m 2.12 g/t 0.12 g/t 0.02 g/t
13 - 227 25.0 m 26.0 m 1.0 m 6.89 g/t 0.24 g/t 0.12 g/t
13 - 228 35.0 m 39,0 m 4.0 m 9.20 g/t 0.45 g/t 0.35 g/t
13 - 228 37.0 m 38.0 m 1.0 m 18.00 g/t 0.86 g/t 1.09 g/t
13 - 236 38.0 m 41.0 m 3.0 m 16.35 g/t 1.90 g/t 0.25 g/t
13 - 236 38.0 m 39.0 m 1.0 m 42.50 g/t 5.40 g/t 0.64 g/t
13 - 240 177.0 m 201.0 m 24.0 m 1.79 g/t 0.17 g/t 0.05 g/t
13 - 240 186.0 m 190.0 m 4.0 m 3.61 g/t 0.20 g/t 0.04 g/t
13 - 241 24.0 m 26.0 m 2.0 m 5.76 g/t 0.33 g/t 0.07 g/t
13 - 241 40.0 m 41.0 m 1.0 m 6.01 g/t 0.27 g/t 0.04 g/t
Exploratory work had also continued on the Upper Offset Zone Southeast Extension by methods of drilling that was aimed at further testing if the Offset Zone continues upward and toward the southeast along the currently interpreted arcuate strike of the Equigranular Gabbro Contact towards the North VT Rim. Some of the best highlights from this program had additionally returned 3.62 g/t Pd over 6 m in Hole 13 - 705, Hole 13 - 707 had returned 4.58 g/t Pd over 8 m, and Hole 13 - 717 would return 4.34 g/t Pd over 50 m. Results from the drilling program had rather indicated that Palladium mineralization is intermittently present along the arcuate trending target adjacent to the Equigranular Gabbro Contact. It generally is considered to not have sufficient continuity to warrant additional infill drilling at this stage. Much of the high-grade mineralization that was intercepted in Hole 13 -717 had warrant follow up drilling as it could potentially connect to an isolated new zone of good grade palladium mineralization that's located to the south of and above the main Offset Zone Resource Shell.
It was also in the later part of September, 2013, when a total of three short holes were completed at the north end of the Sheriff Zone in order to determine the continuity along strike and to a depth of previously identified surface mineralization. These were in regards to historic and much recent channel results that were taken from this zone during exploration periods. Some of the best intercepts from drilling had returned 10.15 g/t Pd over 16 m in Hole 13 - 11, and Hole 13 - 119 had returned an intercept of 2.06 g/t Pd over 12 m.
Geology of Lac Des Iles PGE Mine
Significant resources that have been past produce and up to the current resources are considered to be within the Roby and Offset Zone Deposits at the Lac Des Iles PGE Mine. These resources that are typically contained within the Roby and Offset Deposits had rather been separated in more discrete HW and FW Zones. It's rather known that the Roby Deposit by itself is considered to extend down to a depth of nearly 650 m below the surface workings. This generally also includes a thick FW Zone in the west, which is tens to hundreds of meters wide, and contains a much thinner HZ Zone that's approximately 5 to 20 m thick to the east. It's also the FW zone that consists of vari-textured Gabbro and local hetrolithic gabbro breccia which has typical palladium grades of 1 to 3 g/t. The HW Zone is quite known to consists of typical grades that range between 3 to 10 g/t which is commonly hosted by a much sheared, melanocratic norite (pyroexenite). Another deposit known as the Offset also shows very similar grade distributions to that of the Roby Zone that's presently being mined. This is also believed to represent the along strike continuation of the Roby Zone Deposit but has rather been displaced from the latter by the east striking and north dipping offset fault line. The Offset Fault Deposit typically also remains open towards the surface, to the southeast and at depth that's greater than 1,500 m below the surface. For the most part, the Offset Zone is rather host to a majority of the much higher grade palladium resources on the property, and is being focus on current underground mine production, development, and exploration drilling. Exploratory work which was done in 2014, had also confirmed the continuity of the thickest part of the Offset Zone below the current limit of the phase 1 plan and to a minimum depth of 1,450 m, providing support for potential mine expansion at depth. Further drilling is also additionally required in order to increase the confidence of the mineral resources below phase 1 depth limit and to determine the full extent of potential mineable palladium mineralization in the lower part of the Offset Zone Deposit.
The Lac Des Iles PGE Mine is known for hosting other mineralized zones that are determined as the North Varitextured Rim (North VT Rim) zone and the Sheriff Zone. The first of these zones known as the North VT Rim is a 2km long east to northeast striking mineralization that consists of sheared and altered varitextured gabbro and subordinate norite. The Sheriff Zone is rather describe as a combination of the former southeast Roby, Twilight, and South Pit Zones that connect through additional drilling.
The property is rather uncertain by mafic and ultramafic rocks of the LDIM intrusive complex. It rather belongs to a best documentation of a suite of Neoarchean mafic to ultramafic intrusive bodies that occur within a sub-circular area of approximately 35 km by 40 km in the Wabigoon Subprovince of the Canadian Sheild. These general intrusions are considered to be located to the north of the Quetico Subprovince and directly to the west of the Nipigon embayment of mid continent rift system. It's also the easternmost bodies of the LDIM suite of intrusions that are the LDI-IC and the Legris Lake Complex. Both the LDI-IC and the Legris Lake intrusion are rather believed to have been emplaced along a pre-existing northeast-trending splay structure (Shelby Lake Fault) emanating from the east to the northeast trending collisional structural boundary zone between the Quetico and Wabigon Subprovinces during the Shebandowanian progeny at approximately 2,695 Ma.
The LDIM suite is considered to have typical characteristics of a sub-circular morphology, and commonly exhibits igneous layering, which dip inwards from the intrusive margins. These foremost intrusions have rather been emplaced into 3.01 to 2.89 Ga Granite -greenstone basement rocks, and had been designated as Mormian Terrane, which represents an older slice of magmatic arc related to crustal rocks within the Wabigoon Subprovince. The Marnian Terrane which is rather included as part of the south-central Wabigoon Subprovince, comprises of intermediate to felsic orthogneiss, and infolded, metamorphose supracrustal rocks including mafic-felsic volcanic and clastic, and chemical sedimentary rocks. The mafic components of the LDIM suite intrusions are commonly dominated by norite units with gabbro only being developed in the most evolved units which typically occupy the interior and upper portion of the bodies. Some of the ultramafic components that are included in the LDIM are known for consisting of Dunite, peridotite, and pyroexenite. These typical units can also have orthopyroxene or clinopyroxene as the most dominant pyroxene type within the LDIM. Most of these LDIM intrusion suites are known for hosting economically interesting PGE-Copper-Nickel Sulphide mineralization in the form of surface showings or shallow drilling interceptions.
Basement complexes in granite-greenstone Subprovinces of the Superior Province are quite rare. The possibility of an nonconformity beneath the approximately 3 billion year old steep rock group, over approximately 3 billion year old granitoids of the Marmion Lake Batholith that has been discussed for many years. Most other types of geochronicalogical work in this area, on rocks of the Marmion Lake batholith, other stocks and gneisses external to the batholith and supracrustal rocks of the Lumby Lake greenstone belt, indicate a Mesoarchean age for these rocks. The Marmion Lake Batholith has been dated at 3001 Ma., 2953 Ma., and 3003 Ma. per Davison and Jackson's reports of 1988. Two felsic tuffs and quartz porphyre in the Lumby Lake belt are very quite identical in age at 2999+1 Ma. The Marmion Lake Batholith is largely cut by mafic dikes and mafic dikes cut the 3 billion year old granitoids north of Armstrong. (OntarioExplorarions101)
Neoarchean internal batholiths are commonly consider to vary from tonality and trondhjemite through granodiorite, quartz, mozonite, and granite. These are silica poor phases, such as monzonite and syenodiorite that are also present. It's also the sodium rich phase that are much older than potassium rich ones, earlier phases that tend to be much foliated whereas later ones are much more massive. These are further determined by observation of (pyroxene) biotite-amphibolite-diorite to amphibole biotite-tonalite at approximately 2733 Ma., accompanying and partially surrounding layered mafic intrusions. (OntarioExplorations101). This group is generally equivalent to andesitic volcanism in the surrounding greenstone belts. This also includes amphibole-biotire tonalite to granodiorite at approximately 2733 Ma., and is geochemically equivalent to ryholitic volcanism in the surrounding greenstone belt.
The Lac Des Iles PGE Mine mineralization is largely associated with a late igneous type of breccia that's up to 100 m wide between gabbro and gabbronorite. Generally, the PGE mineralization is associated with disseminated chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, pyrite, and altered silicates. Brecciated zones are also generally cut by gabbro pegmatite dikes, which locally contain up to 37 ppm total PGE and Au. Much of the mineralization is known to also be localized by mixing the PGE and Sulphide rich gabbro, while PGE were redistributed by late volatile activity, which had generated mineralized gabbroic pegmatite and breccia zones.