It was during 1910, when the Cedar Lake Prospect was undergoing extensive explorations by a prospector who staked claim EB 26. As the staking was made he had additionally started his own surveying method that was said to have been completed by 1911. By this time another claim known as TR3187 became also leased in 1915, and was shortly after survey by H.G Watkins by 1916. It was reported that this historical surveyor had also started on examining a large amount of iron that was discovered near Temagami Lake. Most of this examination had occurred because Mr. Watkins was on a mission to find rich iron for war related materials that became establish at a high price. After coming across the material he was looking for, the surveyor/prospector had made the first shipment of Iron Pyrites from Claim TR3187 in 1916. It was during this time period when the Rand Syndicate was incorporated to further commence operations by conducting open cuts on this iron deposit. Some more statements on this location had stated that this iron discovery was made within Strathy Township and was located at a distance of three quarters of a mile south of Cedar Lake.
The Cedar Lake Nickel Prospect was later being re-examined by the National Mines, Limited who had staked this property in 1918. This staking had resulted in further explorations when trenching and 400 feet of diamond drilling was completed from January, to March 1919. Most of this exploratory procedure was being done on claims T.R. 1623 and T.R. 3448, wihin Strathy Township of the Temagami area. For the most part it was rather reported that these claims were located at a distance of one mile south of Cedar Lake. Drilling and trenching which was undertaken was rather reported to have contained chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and a little pentlandite and gold. At the time it was also stated that one of these claims were owned by Mr. Fallahay, and Walters, and the other claim was owned by Mr. Cook. No other work was reported to have been done on the property at the time as it became abandoned.
Statements on the geology portion had rather explained that the Cedar Lake Nickel Deposit is known to occur at the southwest corner of claims T.R. 1623 and T.R. 3187. Other statements had stated that this deposit area is rather situated at a north end of an intrusion of serpentine, with latter being three quarter of a mile long, and of oval outline. The ore-body within the Cedar Lake Nickel Deposits is commonly known to occur at the north of the intrusion on a neck of serpentine which protrudes northward from the main mass of rock. This ore body is commonly known to occur on a low hill that situated west of the pond, and is stained by a brown colour by the Gossan that covers it. Much of the Gossan is commonly known to be made up of iron oxides, which the decomposition products of the sulphides composing the ore-body. Other reports on the Gossan covered area had stated that it had a length of about 300 feet in a north-south direction by a width of 12 feet in an east and west direction. In addition to this, this Gossan is known to be wholly covered by the serpentine, although a small amount of serpentine is known to occur in the banded cherty rocks in the Keewatin on the east of claims T.R. 1623. The mineral which made up this ore-body are known to included pyrrhotite, copper pyrite, and pentlandite, which is known to be a nickel bearing material. and carrying 22% Nickle (Ni). Examinations of this area had also revealed that the sulphides are rather uniformly disseminated through the serpentine, and the ore-body. More conclusion on the sulphide deposit had stated that this nickle bearing ore is known to resemble the disseminated ore at the Alexo Nickel Deposit near Porcupine. Although more statements on this deposit had stated that the sulphide are rather much smaller than that at the Alexo NIckle Mine. Most of this geological deposit area is also made up of disseminated ore with a few irregular veins of pure sulhpides that are less than a food wide, and cut through the disseminated ore. At the time it was also stated that these small veins were rather rich in material, but have no economic significance because they were to narrow for profitable work. Grab Samples which were taken from different section of this deposit area had rather assayed
1.0% Nickel (NI) and 0.52% Copper (Cu) which was taken from the low grade disseminated ore. Another sample taken on the high-graded disseminated ore had rather resulted in assays of 6.54% Nickle (Ni) and 6.40 Copper (Cu).
Development within the early part of the 1900, was focus on developing an east and west shaft to explore the deposit further. This had resulted in sinking the west shaft near the boundary of claim T.R. 3187, and the east shaft on the east boundary of claim T.R. 1623. Both of these shafts were reported to have been full of water at the time of inspections in 1919. Further statements on the geology portion had stated that the rocks on the dump were entirely serpentine. It was also stated that the dump material from shaft T.R. 1623 was not gossan stained and had contained little ore, while the dump from the other shaft was gossan stained. By that time it was also reported that very little mineralization had occurred in the serpentine, except for the north of the serpentine intrusion. Development which was undertaken on the property had rather consisted of over a dozen buildings, and a winter road was built from Cedar Lake South to the deposit, at a distance of 1 mile. This was also the property that was owned by the National Nickle, Ltd. in 1918, which resulted in developing this possible extension to the Kanichee Mine Ore-bodies.
The property was later transferred over to Caniptau Mines, Ltd, who had commenced their own exploration work. At the time it was reported that Caniptau Mines had additionaly staked eleven claims within the Strathy Township Area of Temagami, Ontario, Canada. These historical claims became registered as EB. 26, T.R 3187, and TRT 2448, 4310, 4311, 4369, 4390,4371, 4381, and 5954. With these staking made it was rather reported that this whole entire claim block had comprised of 440 acres of land for continuous explorations. This was undertaken by a further explorations when Ground Megnetometer surveying, and six diamond drill hole became drilven, and totaled 1,492 feet in length in 1932. The company at the time rather had its own capitalization of $3,000,000 in shares at $1 par value, in which 1,795,505 shares were issued. It was also reported that the directors of the company were B.W Watkins as president, E.P. Muntz as vice president, and Walter G. Watkins as secretary.
1933 - Caniptau Mines, Limited
Development in 1933, resulted in the sinking of a shaft that was sunk to a depth of 115 feet below the surface. As this development became completed, it was also stated that a 9 by 16 foot station was cut on the 100 foot level. Diamond drilling during that time period of operating had amounted to six surface diamond drill holes, totalling 1,250 feet in length. Following the construction of much need buildings it was also stated that a road was cut out to Goward for a distance of 3 miles, which became known as Caniptau Mine Road. At the time it was also reported that the company had held a total of 20 claims within Strathy Township. Power which was provided to the mining operation was taken from a newly installed steam plant in order to carry on underground work.
1934 - Cuniptau Mines, Limited.
Shaft sinking at the Cuniptau Mine had continued onward as the two compartment shaft was sunken to a depth of 240 feet. This had rather resulted in cutting and stationing two levels at depths of 100 and 225 feet below the surface. Drifting and crosscutting during this time period had amounted 1,372 feet, and 55 feet of raising was completed. Some more changes were made when a 50 ton blast furnace was add and kept in operation to treat the green ore. Employment during that year was rather reported to have amounted to 40 employees that were hired by Caniptua Mines, Limited
1935 - Cuniptau Mines, Limited
A small amount of ore was reportedly tested in the 50 ton blast furance which resulted in satisfactory concentrates. It was also in 1935, when the company had mainly confined it self to conducting further surface explorations with a force of 10 miners. By this time the company had started raising funds in November, 1935, as it needed to purchase concentrating, and converter equipment, and to carry on further underground work.
1936 - Cuniptau Mines, Limited
The property which was formerly known as Caniptua Mine had rather comprised of 64 claims, totalling 2,360 acres in Strathy Township, within the District of Nipissing. Prior to getting operation going, it was reported that the smelter was rebuilt in order to test the possibilities of making a suitable matte from the ore. Most of this became accomplish by using the ore from the dump and underground development/mining. Lateral development which was undertaken in 1936, had resulted in 369 feet of drifting, 30 feet of crosscutting, and 276 feet of raising. Diamond drilling which was undertaken that year had amounted to 602 feet of durface diamond drilling, and 3,956 feet from underground drilling. From this development it was also stated that 3,878 tons of ore and 1,243 tons of waste was hoisted from underground, The reconstruction of the smelter had started in March, with mining starting in May, and milling in July, 1935. Smelting operations at the Cuniptau Mine Site had continued treating the ore from July to October of that year.
1937 - Ontario Nickle Corporation
The Ontario Nickle Corpoeation was rather incorporated on Dcember, 1936, with an authorized capitalization of 6,000,000 shares at $1 par value. For the most part it became reported that the company had acquired the Cuniptau Nickle Propery for $15,000 from Cuniptau Mines, Limited. It was rather stated that further explorations were carried out on the Caniptau Mine that resulted in 957 feet of surface diamond drilling, and 2,628 feet of underground diamond drilling. Most of this exploratory work had commenced from January, 1 to July, 15, 1937.
1947 - Trebor Mines, Limited
By 1947, it was rather reported that Trebor Mines, Limited had staked a large area of land that included the former Cuniptau Mine Property. Other statements from the company had also stated that the property at the time was acquired from the Ontario Nickle Mines, Ltd, and the Timagami Gold Mines, Ltd. The main mine manager during that time period was commonly identified as T.H. Janes, who reported that a magnetometer survey was carried out on the property. It was soon indicated that a very high anomaly had indicated a north trending magnetic area that wasn't located to far from the Cuniptau Mine Shaft. A company geologist by the name of T.J. Randall had also commence further follow ups on this anomaly within 1948. This follow up procedure was followed by geological mapping, magnetometer, and geophysical surveying that was done on five claims. It was also at this point in time when the explration project was contracted out to the Geo-Technical Development Company, Limited. Much of this exploratory work had soon indicated six strong anomalies within the five claims that were being further evaluated. For the most part, it was also reported that Trebor Mines, Limited was incorporated on January, 1947, with a capitilization of 3,500,000 shares at $1 par value, which 2,510,005 were issued
1949 - Trebor Mines, Limited
Diamond drilling that was done in 1949, had amounted 132 to surface holes, totalling 38,857 feet in length. For the most part it became stated that mining operation during that year were mainly confined to the rehabilitation of several buildings. Most of the building which were under reconstruction had mainly been confined to the office, cookery, and staff house, 2 bunk houses, a bungalow, and 2 shops.. A total of six employees became employed under the direction of G.H. Dumont as the mine manager. This company and mining operation were known to have also been controled by K.H. Rockey, who was the company president.
Mr. Rukeyser himself had also performed further explorations on the Kanichee Mine in 1950, when the geologist had started on another diamond drilling program. This whole entire program had now completed 38,857 feet of diamond drilling that was taken from 120 holes within this claimed area. A sub-contractor known as Falconbridge Nickel Mines Limited had also performed another Magnetometer survey. During this time he also had underwent a whole new phase that was aimed at testing the ore within the shaft. Before any of this was to be completed, the company would need to first dewater the Cunipitau Shaft. Once the shaft was officially dewater the company and its geologist would end up testing the ore within the two levels. Indications from these testing's had indicated three positive production zones that were marked as A, E, and S. These historical reserves were estimated to contain a whopping 4,873,000 tons of ore that valued at $22,885,000. A huge amount of Bulk Sampling was also shipped from the mine to the Department of Mines, in Ottawa, and to the Nepheline Products Company for testing purposes. The results from the testing's would soon indicate that a high silver and gold ore reserve was uncovered by the prospector and the geology team. By the end of 1949, the Trebor Mines Limited would process more than 5,000,000 tons of ore that came from this mining zone.
Another historical change was made when the Ajax Minerals Limited had acquired the property in 1961. Company officials had also decided to hire George H Dunmont who was an old engineer for the Trebor Mines Limited. He additionally had witnessed the discovery that was outlined in the diamond drilling program within 1949 and 50. Soon enough the property was once again being increased in size as it had now comprised of 15 mining claims, that totaled 582.73 acres of land in Strathy Township.
Some more changes had soon taken place when the h Kanichee Mining Company had now taken full ownership of this claim with Jack Koza Limited Joint Venture, and the Quebec Mines Limited. These three companies had soon commence further development on the property that included a brand new 500 ton Milling Facility. Many different testing procedures would indicate a high grade Nickel Copper Matte processing phase that was considered to be easily processed. Nevertheless, the company did also report that they experience some problems when it came to the Talc Flotation mixture with the copper matte. A large amount of Nickel concentrate was also present within this flotation phase. Several large diamond drilling phase became also achieved throughout the whole entire property, that totalled 165 diamond drill holes. It was also reported the Ajax Minerals would get to be apart of the whole entire picture as they demanded for a new 500 tons mill within these mineral rights.Mining operations at the Kanichee Mine had officaily commenced in 1974, and would continue until 1976, when Falconbridge Nickle Mines, Ltd had stop purchasing the concentrate due to decreasing nickle prices. The total amount of ore that was taken from the workings was not accounted for as it didn't become reported. Work at the time was mainly being focus on low grade reserves that had assayed
Some major changes became made in 1976, when Jack Koza Limited, who was a private company, had decided to fold on this project. During this time period, the former open-cut was rather developed into a large size open pit but production from this area was not reported to the Government. Kanichee Mining Incorporated had also made changes when it had went through its own receivership in late 1976, and the former Ajax Minerals Limited became dissolved on February, 14, 1978. Some small scale exploration work was also performed by the Northern Platinum Ltd in 1987.
Northern Platinum Ltd - Claim Lease EB 26, T.R 3187, TRT 3448, 4310, 4311,4369, 4370, 4371, 4381, 5953, 5954, 5955, 5956,6763, 6773
G.H. Dumont, P.Eng., calculated the ore reserves in 1961, from his experience as resident engineer at the Trebor Mine during the major diamond drilling program carried out during the late 1948-1950 period, from his experience as resident engineer at the Trebor Mine during the major diamond drilling program carried out during the late 1948-1950 period,
Shaft S Ore-Body - 369,000 tonnes grading 0.89% copper, and 0.53% Nickel, with a minor amount of PGM and Cobalt Content.
The A Ore-Body- 735,000 tonnes, grading 0.45 % Copper, and 0.26% Nickel
South A Extention - 3,764,000, grading 0.32% copper, and 0.19% Nickel
E zone North of the shaft - 547,000 tonnes, grading, 0.29% copper, and 0.19% Nickel
Ore Reserve Total - 5,416,000 tonnes
John C. Dumbrille, P.ENG, had calculated the ore reserve in the shaft area in February, 1966 as followed
Shaft Ore Zone - 900,000 tonnes grading 0.61% copper, and 0.37% Nickel with minor amounts of PGM, and Cobalt Content.
D.G. Wahl, P.Eng., calculated the ore reserves in June 1972 for Jack Koza Limited and did a feasibility report for the proposed Kanichee Mining-Jack Koza Limited joint venture. Wahl calculated the recoverable ore in the shaft area as follows
Shaft Ore Body - 373,863 tonnes, grading 0.79% copper, and 0.44% Nickel. with 37,789 cubic yards of overburden.and 427,920 tonnes of wet waste.
A ore-body, 55,513 tonnes grading. 0.50% copper, and 0.28% nickel with 12,893 cubic yards of overburden and 91,280 tonnes to be stockpiled.
JohnC. Dumbrille evaluated the Ajax Mines (Trebor Mines) property in Strathy Township on February 9, 1966 and concluded that 900,000 tons of medium to low grade ore out crops at the bedrock surface at the mine shaft sit was ready for open-pit mining. According to Dumbrille, this mineralization covers an area some 500 feet in north-south dimension to the 200-foot subsurface level. He submitted a grade of this proposed open-pit ore as
0.85% copper, 0.56% nickel, 0.03% cobalt, 0.01 ounces of gold, 0.17 ounces of silver, 0.02% platinum, 0.03% palladium.
Dumbrille recommended the production of a concentrate of the mine site on a ratio of 11.5 ' l that would contain 6% copper and 3% nickel with 0.05 oz/ton PGM plus gold, silver and cobalt.
Northern Platinum, Limited. had continued its exploration program at the former producing Kanichee Mine in Strathy Township. It was in 1988 when the company was focus on searching for copper, nickle and platinum extensions, and down dips to the deposit. This was also followed by line-cutting, trenching, and conducting a 760 m diamond drilling program of the old ore-body, which identified new extensions to it. Drilling results from this program had outlined additional reserves of 249,250 tonnes grading 0.84% Copper (Cu), and 0.54% Nickle (Ni). This was rather considered as an addition to the previously defined reserves of 688,800 tons grading 0.46% Cu and 0.29% Ni. Further statements stated that the bulk of the ore is known to occur within a major shear zone cutting serpentinized periodotite of the Ajax Ultramafic Intrusion.
At the time it was also stated that the company had hired Sheridan Ltd in order to evaluate the company's 500 ton mill. Most of this evaluation was done in case Northern Platinum had wanted to commence production at the old Kanichee Mine Site. Other reports had stated that Northern Platinum had attentions in recovering platinum from the old tailing piles, which were supposedly rich
By 1988,lt was rather stated that Northern Platinum had completed a four year exploration program on the Kanichee Mine in Strathy Township. Stripping, trenching, diamond drilling and sampling had indicated a minor extension of copper, nickle, and platinum group bearing Ajax Ultramafic Intrusion. Most of the work in 1989, was mainly focus on the rehabilitation of the 500 ton per day concentration plant, and other mine facilities Some more installations were added when a 4.5 mesh cone crusher was installed with a new electrical motor.
Power at the time was upgraded by Ontario Hydro who had installed a power transmission line into the property. With the much needed power in place it became reported that Northern Platinum had dewatered the 25 m open pit, and scaled it. This resulted in the haulage of 10,000 tons of ore that was taken from the pit floor, and stockpiled near the mill. A trial ten ton bulk sample was reported to had been obtained from this stock pile which was shipped to Lakefield Research who underwent milling and metallurgical testing.Some more issues had occur with water supply when the 450 gallon per minute plant could not obtain a 75 gallon per minute source of water. Other statements from the company had reported that the original water line was removed for scrap several years after this company had started their own explorations on the Kanichee Mine Project. It was also at this point in time when the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources had ordered the removal of two bridges spanning causeways alone the mine access road for safety reasons. Much of this had rather resulted in temporary suspension of further developing this mining project at the time
For the most part its reported that Northern Platinum would end up purchasing 10% NPI interest in a 4 to 5 million ton near surface deposit of platinum metal, copper, and nickle. The company at the time could also earn 50% working interest by spending 1 million dollars in 4 years.
The Kanichee Nickel Property was later explored by Fleck Resources, Limited, who had underwent optioning agreements from one of the P. Sheridan's Companies in 1989. Primarily it was reported that the Kanichee Mine was a principle producer of copper, but nickle, platinum, and palladium occur in interesting quantities. By this time it was rather reported that Fleck Resources had initiated an exploration program for platinum,and a new grid was also cut on the property. For the most part it was also stated that Fleck Resource had planned for further surface diamond drilling when three holes, totalling 472 m became drilled, and two more were also completed.
Kanichee Layered Intrusive Complex Regional Geology
The Kanichee Layer Intrusive Complex is considered as one of the largest of several mafic-ultramafic bodies in felsic and mafic metavolcanics rocks in the northern portion of the Temagami Greenstone Belt, in northern Ontario, Canada. An ultramafic apophysis along the northern margin of the intrusion contains a mineralized zone of disseminated and vein type pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and pentlandite, with the host olivine peridotite that has altered to various serpentine-talc-carbonate assemblages. These foremost intrusive body consist of five cycles of cumulate rocks, in which the lower four cycles, cumulus chromite, olivine, and clinopyroxene form rocks ranging from dunite to clinopyroxenite. Its also in cycle five when a similar suite of utramafic rocks is overlain by olivine and quartz gabbro in which plagioclase, clinopyroxenite, and an Fe-Ti oxide phase are the dominant type of minerals. This also includes igneous hornblende that is a common accessory type of mineral in the ultramafic rocks of all cycles. In cycle 1, its known to commonly occur as a cumulus phase within clinopyroxenites, which the sulfide minerals that occur are disseminated interstitial grains in the ultramafic rocks of these five cycles, but are particularly abundant in the olivine cumulates at the base of this complex. The similarity in mineralogy and chemistry of the ultramafic rocks of the five cycles strongly suggests that each one had formed from magmas of similar composition, only the final pulse of magma remained in place long enough to actually form fractionated liquids from which the olivine gabbro and possibly the quartz gabbro crystallized. This order of appearance of cumulate phases in each cycle and the chemistry of the parent magma suggests that each cycle crystallized from a high magnesium basaltic magma belonging to Jolly’s magnesian tholeiite suite. The main rock types that this includes, consists of various formed rock types that have undergone sill, to mafic-ultramafic, layered, magmatic cycles, olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, Ni-Cu, PGE’s, in Temagami, Ontario, Canada.
For the most part, the Kanichee Layered Intrusive Complex is the largest of several sill-like mafic and ultramafic synvolcanic intrusive bodies that occur in the northern portion of the Temagami Greenstone Belt. The various aspects of geology of this volcanic belt has been reported by Bennet (1978), and Moorhouse(1942). This foremost layered intrusive complex was first reported by Knight(1920), who had recognized a gossan zone that was 90 x 25 m at its northern extremity, that contains disseminated and vein pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and not least pentlandite mineralization. It had also been reported in various other reports as it was developed through shafts before eventually being developed by open-pit mining operations. The Geology of this intrusive complex in the immediate vicinity of this ore as well as the mineralogy and paragenesis of the mineralization that includes disseminations of the major and minor axes of this oval-shaped body are approximately 1050 and 730 meters, respectively. It also includes a lenticular zone of quartz gabbro that lies immediately south of the main portion of the complex. It has rather been less explored which makes it not clear if it has a separate origin from the olivine gabbro immediately to the north. This ore zone includes cycle 1 rock types that have a clear intrusive relationship to the metavolcanics country rocks. Its also within this part of the complex that the contact has been observed in several places by OntarioExplorations101. Typically this contact is either very sharp with no contact aureole, or it is the location of a talc-chloride-carbonated-zone of alteration that commonly separates serpentinized peridotite from greenschist-facies metavolcanic rocks. The contact with the country rock has also not been observed elsewhere in the complex, and shows a total of five magmatic cycles, each of which consists of one or more rock types. These are a range of compositions that form dunite and olivine peridotite , in which olivine is considered as the major cumulus phase, to peridotite, and clinopyroxenite, which are olivine-clinopyroxenite cumulates. Gabbro is typically only found in cycle five, and the contact between cycles 1 and 2 lies within the open pit of the ore zone mined, but is not accessible to observation due to flooding. The ore zone in cycle one and the lower portion of cycle 2 are both separated from the remainder of this complex by a fault zone whose azimuth is 050 degrees. The boundary between cycles 3 and 4 and between cycles 4 and 5 is approximately marked by narrow 10 to 20 m linear valleys oriented parallel to stratigraphic boundaries between felsic and mafic metavolcanic units in the country rock that are adjacent to this complex. This also includes precise nature of the contact between these cycles that is unknown owing to the lack of exposure. Within these individual cycles, the rocks are typically categorized by massive and grained rock types. Boundaries that are also between the recognized distinct rock-types, i.e. peridotite, and clinopyroxenite, are gradational, and only rarely is centimeter scale layering recognized. The geology portion consists of four separate igneous cycles, each consisting of layers of one or more of dunite, olivine peridotite, peridotite, clinopyroxenite or olivine gabbro. In cycle 5, it shows that the widest range of rock types and can be correlated with reasonable confidence between the two stratigraphic sections. Cycles 3 and 4 appear as truncated versions of cycle 5 that contain only the more olivine-rich cumulate portions of cycle 5. Clinopyroxenite and olivine gabbro are typically absent, and only the uppermost portion cycle 2 is observed, i.e. clinopyroxenite . The base of this cycle is probably represented by the peridotite that overlies cycle 1 rock.
This also includes the strike direction of the boundaries between cycles that are within layered series are approximately 055 degrees. The value has also been determined by correlation of equivalent members in the two stratigraphic sections. It is also cleared that the strike direction is nearly parallel to the flow contacts exhibited by the host metavolcanic rocks. Prior to this, the sequence of cumulus phases forming each magmatic cycle indicates that the intrusive complex is south facing, as are the enclosing metavolcanics flows. These types of data suggest that the rocks of the layered series in this complex originally formed in a much horizontal attitude and probably at a very shallow crustal level. In addition to this, several pulses of magmatic intrusion, and of which may have had a surface volcanic expression, that are required to explain the cyclic nature of these igneous rocks. Further more, a magmatic anomaly slightly elliptical in a NE-SW direction and caused largely by the alteration of olivine and pyroxenes to a serpentine-magmatic assemblage, which indicates that the ultramafic rocks of all five cycles do not have unexposed extensions much beyond the presently observed outcroppings. From the above information, we concluded that this complex is cigar shaped, its long axis plunging to the southeast at a rather steep angle, that’s caused by one or more periods of deformation that similarly folded and had deformed the enclosing volcanic rocks.
Much of the ore zone that's identified in cycle one is mainly confined to a salient of ultramafic rock at the northern margin of this complex. Three N-S oriented sampling profiles, indicate that this zone is also layered, which rather comprises of thin members of clinopyroxenite and peridotite overlie a thick unit of olivine peridotite to form the cycle 1 sequence of magmatic cumulates. A poorly exposed wedge of olivine peridotite along the southwestern margin of the ore zone represents the lower of a second cycle. Diamond drilling that was rather carried out over a period of 20 years beginning in the 1930’s indicates that the base of the ore zone plunges S 35 degrees E at approximately 40 degrees. The magmatic layering was considered to have no been recognized at that time, hence no estimate of its attitude was reported. General mineralization includes pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and pentlandite that occurs not only in disseminated phases within the olivine peridotite but also in carbonated-quartz-veins that occur throughout cycle 1 rocks and at the contacts of the complex with the metavolcanic country rocks. Combined values of Cu and Ni within the vein run as high as 12 wt.% precious metal value for Pt, Pd, and Au average close to 2110,9015, 2117 ppb, respectively.
Dunite or olivine peridotite form the basal member of each magmatic cycle, which these rocks consists of equant to oval shaped grains of serpentized olivine 0.1-1 mm in diameter. This also includes various amounts of intercumulus clinopyroxene, amphibole, and their alteration products. Nowhere is the olivine fresh, and typically is represented by a serpentine mesh and less commonly, by hourglass cells. Secondary magnetite is rather abundant within the mesh rims, while grains of cumulus chromite rimmed by secondary magnetite are typically wholly enclosed within olivine. Fresh postcumulus clinopyroxene is also present in these rocks from all five of the magmatic cycles. However, it is also replaced by a mixture of serpentine, talc, and tremolite, which includes brown pleochroic igneous hornblende that occurs in very small amounts as a postcolumus interstitial phases in most samples of dunite, and peridotite of all five cycles. It is also replaced in various places by actinolite.
The presence of both olivine and clinopyroxene as cumulate minerals serves to distinguish the olivine cumulates from the peridotite and pyroxenites of each magmatic cycle. Its also in the latter rock type of clinopyroxene that forms 90 modal % or more of the cumulus mineral in the lowermost part of the peridotite member of each cycle, but rapidly disappears upward in the section, as indicated by the geochemical data presented in subsequent section. Small scale phase layering has been observed in this sections from two samples of peridotite, which in both, thin layers are rich in clinopyroxene between much thicker layers in olivine.