By 1891, much of the work at the Copper Cliff Mine was rather suspended for the time being. It was also reported that only one smelter was in operation in which the ore produce from the mine was ample in supplying the smelter at capacity for 1 year. Production at the Copper Cliff Copper-Nickel Mine was rather being achieved at 125 tonnes of ore on a daily basis, which was one of the highest producing mines at the time. Work within the mine was only done if an increase demand for ore is need in order to keep up with the smelter operations. Some improvements were also being made at the time in which resulted in enlarging the rock house to double its size. Other buildings that were under construction had included the much needed matte handling structures, in which three converters, and a new furnace were installed. Much of the matte was rather also drawn off from the Water-Jacketed furnaces in a continuous steam into a spout, in which was conveyed for a short distance, and emptied into a water tank.
1892 - Canadian Copper Company
At the time much of the New Rock House was reported to have been completed, and the mine was extensively worked in 1892. It was rather at this point in time when the No.1 Shaft that inclined at 040 degrees had reach a depth of 700-feet below the surface. Extensive stoping was rather done near the surface, in which resulted in continuing mining operations to the first level at 55 feet from the surface. Development at the time had also progressed on the second level at 98 feet, in which was developed in good ore. This was also followed by further developing the 181-foot level when a drift was driven 100 feet from the shaft. Progress was also taking place on the fourth level that was cut on the 263-foot horizon of the Copper Cliff Property, which large stopes were developed for 120 feet. Mining operations on the fifth level were also continued at 328 feet below the surface, and were opened up by 180 feet of lateral development where several stopes had been made. Major development within 1892, had also taken place on the sixth level at 415 feet, and lateral development totalled 250, with minor amount of stoping. At the time, it was also reported that the lowest level of the mine was cut and stationed on the 501-foot horizon, where it was developed by 350 feet of lateral work that ran through fine ore. Smelting within that year alone was also rather run at its usual capacity of 125 tonnes on a daily basis.
1893 - Canadian Copper Company
Lateral development within the mine was chiefly confined to further expanded the 328-foot level, which was the fifth level within the mine at the time. Even more development at the time was also advanced on the 415, and the 501-foot level. As lateral development progressed it was also reported that the seventh level a 501 feet had a satisfactory ore-body exposed, and it was also determined that it would continued to greater depth. At the time, it was also stated that this was the lowest workings within any mining operation within the Sudbury area. Upon examinations of these ore-bodies it was indicated that the presents of copper-nickel ore would continue at depth. Other changes would also follow suit when the large ore-body would be rather costly as it continued by development, and sinking. Prior to this major down fall it was reported by the company that a shaft would be sunk directly upon the ore within the mine. Production at the time was mainly being achieved on the lower level of the mine, in which a large quantity of ore was being hoisted, and prepared for smelting. Some more problems were shortly after encountered when the cold winter months in December, had place a stoppage on the roasting of ore.
One of the very first accidents had rather occurred at the rock house on October,31, when a young man by the name of William McDonald had his right arm torn of by a belt. Most of this had happened when he was instructed to pull of the pulleys, when the machine was in rapid motion. Smelting operations at the mine were resumed in May, and a total of 75 men were employed at the smelter. Repairs at the time were made towards an engine that required railings to be put up to prevent accidents while passing it. Production at the time was also increased when the men had delivered the much need quotas of 200 tonnes of ore daily for shipment. Almost all the ore that was provided to the roasting yard had came from the Stobie, Evans, and Copper Cliff Mine Projects, owned by the Canadian Copper Company. Prior to this, the yard was rather sufficient in size for holding up to eighty or ninety thousand tonnes of ore. Processing of the ore was done from 50 to 60 roase heaps, was able to treat 1,500, or 1,800 tonnes of ore Other statements reported that this large amount of ore had required a process of burning for ten weeks or longer, and considerable amount of time to cool off. All production that was achieved by these roasting heaps had rather processed a total of 300,000 tonnes of ore, in which produce 40,500 tonnes of matte. Further statements reported that this recovery was equivalent to 6,500 tonnes of copper, and 5,600 tonnes of nickel.
1894 - Canadian Copper Company
The small settlement of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada at the time was just transforming it's own economy. Several mining operations within 1870's became discover as The Transcontinental Railway uncover a rich deposit of Nickel and Copper Ore of the Sudbury Basin in 1883. Many claims which became acquired we're purchase by heavy prospectors and mine producers from the Crown. Each claim within the Sudbury Basin was said to have only cost claimers a buck for an acre of rich mineral land. Some of the most furious mining operations had became developed at this time period. They included some of the most heavy producing mining operations like the Worthington and Frood Mine of 1884, or the Copper Cliff and Creighton Mines of 1885. Other massive mining projects included the development of the Evans Mine in 1886, and by 1887 the Vermillion Mine became discovered. Many mines of the Sudbury Basin we're commonly known to be financed by massive international investors who had money to start full scale mine operations. These included costs like establishing drilling methods with mainly compressed air hand crank drills. They also found new ways of processing copper and nickel ores as technology started to boom in the Sudbury Basin.
Some heavy mine producers like the Canadian Copper Company which was form by Samuel .J Richie had began operations by 1885. He himself had discovered some of Sudbury's fascinating mining operations like the Copper Cliff, Stobie, and Evans Mine operations. The Copper Cliff and Stobie Mine started production in 1885 while the Evans Mine was constructed a year later in 1886. Each of these mining operations had also commonly created easy transportation lines because they we're all within meters of the Sudbury Junction. At the time the demands for nickel and copper we're commonly weak till the Steele industry started using these elements for strengthening nickel alloys with Steele. The process of strengthening Steele with nickel was introduced by Samuel .J. Richie himself as he found ways to use this element. With new ideas of using nickel alloys for strengthening Steel, the processed nickel ore was use in Steele making internationally. Nickel soon after became increased in profit as Samuel .J. Richie establish new ways to use this metal. As the nickel industry proven to be worthy enough the Copper Cliff Mine was well underway in development. The Canadian Copper Company officials started to construct a shaft where more ore could be extracted and processed at a faster level. They included more then 567 feet of underground drilling and blasting while developing 4 sub levels. These sublevels gave company officials a way to further extract the ore bearing resources. In general this included more then 600 feet of workings on all levels and processed over 34,000 tonnes of rock alone. All ore which was extracted became stock pile for 4 years as company owners didn't develop their own smelting facilities just yet. As productions had gotten underway the employees soon started establishing a small settlement town which became identify as The Town of Copper Cliff. Within two years of Copper Cliff becoming a small scale mining settlement, the first arrival of an Immigrant woman soon establish Copper Cliff into a family community.
Other facilities which became developed in Copper Cliff became known as a head-frame which went over the shaft, a pump house was also erected to dewater the mine, and a boiler and steam house provided power to the mine site and machines. Other buildings like the mill became developed in 1888 as productions was becoming heavy. Anther problem to this was that the ore stock pile was becoming extremely over grown with nickelize rock. So in 1888 company officials constructed their very own smelters which soon had presented their own hazards towards humanity and our environment. Company officials of the Canadian Copper Company hired somewhere between 12 men per a shift as two shifts became much needed for this operation. The longest shift of these two became commonly identify as day shifts, while nights became the shorter shifts. As production of the Copper Cliff Mine was well underway, company officials had soon hired the international Finns to their organization. More then 60 Finns became hired as they provided a work effort that couldn't be beaten by any other Immigrated country. Although some mining company's didn't really trust them as they stole profitable ore just to make more money. Not to mention many Finns at that time we're also being treated so poorly by company officials and other employees who we're mostly Canadian or French. Each nationality within Copper Cliff had its own area where these people resided in. In many case the settlement community of Copper Cliff became strongly establish as a Finish Community throughout 1890's.
At the time The Copper Cliff Mine was commonly considered to be one of the most largest and deepest mining operations of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Ore extraction was mainly establish by a series of ore carts that went through this mining operation. As the hard working drillers continue to drill with compress aired drills, they also had to collect the loose rock and place it into ore bins. From there the loose rock would by haul away by the miners to a shaft which was specially design to carry ore carts to the surface. Mine elevators of the Copper Cliff Mine became mainly operated by a massive large cylinder Hoist Engine and an Automatic Skip. Mine wages we're also different like they are today, for example miners would receive $1.75 a day while hoist operator received $2.50 a day.
Another mine smelter was commonly place within this mining operation in 1889, as production continue to be high. The main smelting operator had design his plans for the second smelter which was supposedly suppose to be similar to the previous smelters he had use in other United States Copper Mines. He eventually had gotten the Canadian Copper Company to purchase this design from a well know manufacture from the United States. Although construction of this project became establish in Sherbrook, Quebec because this would eliminate some of the heavy import duty of Mine Machinery. As upgrades on the smelting facility continue the Copper Cliff Mine corporate owners developed their very own Rock House. The Rock house at Copper Cliff Mine became one of the key building towards ore crushing before it was processed. Eventually massive skips also became constructed as they remove the much labour force towards mining operations. These automatic Skips would pretty much haul away the ore from the mine to the rock house. As ore enter the rock house it would then be crushed in Blake Crushers where it would then be thrown out onto outside roast yards. These roast yards became ignited as Ore Processing continue within thirty bed's which we're able to process anywhere from four to six hundred tons of ore. For months at a time the ore would be processed where a massive choking fume of Sulphur would contaminate the environment. Besides the sulphur destroying vegetation for miles company officials continue to operate these roast yards at they weren't expensive to operate.
Soon new upgrades became made towards this as research was finding out ways in transforming smelting operations towards the environment. Their very first researchable plan was to create Hydraulic Jigs to concentrate the fine ore while establish a electrochemical theories towards Nickel assaying. For many years these theories became test before they we're added to the methods of mining. Besides that they also presented less hazards towards the environment like previous smelting operations did. So eventually hydraulic jigging was applied towards ore processing which made company officials angry. The reason for this was because the government had abandoned roasting yards as they cause to much damage to the environment. While roasting yards became abandoned Corporate owners had to now purchase these jigs towards their own production.
In 1900, the Canadian Copper Company was rather transforming the Copper Cliff Mining Operation with rapid development that wasn't achieved in any mines during this time. All production from the mine was soon expanding from the first level to the thirteenth level, and would be establish at a depth of 972 feet. More so the last level to become developed had opened up by a southeast drift that's known to extended for a distance of 80 feet. All ore from each level is being removed by a Double Track Skip way that's been extended all the way to the thirteenth level of the Copper Cliff Mine. Company officials had mainly extracted several tons of ore from the twelfth level, and further development including back-stoping on the No.2 stope. A massive stope is also known to open up the third and tenth level, and ore at the time was being shot down. Most of the ore that was being thrown down the stope became used as Muck and Block- Holes for the tenth level. Some construction phase also occurred on the first level that was being driven by a drift for a few feet before being abandoned. Besides development a massive pumping system was soon created to get rid of any water that came into the underground works. This was first started by installing a small Northey Pumps which then lifted the water from the thirteenth to the twelve level. Once the water had gotten to the twelfth level, it was than lifted by another Northey Pump to the tenth level. Once the water reaches the tenth level, it then lifted to the seventh level by a Cameron Pump. Another Northey pump the lifts the water to the fifth level, and it than goes to the surface by the installation of a larger Northey Pump. During this time period the company soon was on another mission when it wanted to eliminate the costs within its pump system operation. In addition the Canadian Copper Company wanted to install a Large Knowles Pump that would lift the water directly from the seventh level to the surface.
The Canadian Copper Company also decided to develop a brand new underground dynamite explosive storage that would be located in the old ninth level crosscut. Much of the safety in storing this dynamite was rather considered to be locked up at all times with the caps and fusing being stored in another section of this level. A large sum of dynamite was also being placed in this storage that could handle up to 100 LB.. No more work or production was said to have escalated during the time period of 1900.
By 1902 the Settlement Town of Copper Cliff was officially recognized as town rather then a settlement. Growth within this town was pretty much consisting of 400 to 500 people as mining operations boom. As the company town had gain more town status, corporate owner's eventually had their own police department. Even different religious churches we're being developed as Copper Cliff was more rather an immigrant town. Several nationalities around the world called Copper Cliff their own home. Some of these nationalities we're known to come from Italy, France, Poland, China, Finland, Ukraine, and Russia. Many nationalities also didn't like each other so they had their own nationality spots within Copper Cliff. A lot of the times this is why the police department was needed as nationalities would constantly fight against other ethnic groups. Sometimes even gun battles would erupt within Copper Cliff as many nationalities hated each other. Mine production within Copper Cliff Mine was also at large as ore was being processed in large quantities. The mine had also extended its shaft operations as the shaft had now gone down 1,234 feet below ground levels. Additionally five more sub ground levels became establish as the mine had gotten deeper. This extension also expanded other crosscut levels to 1,320 feet within the mine. Even more valuable ore resource was uncover from the mines production as it gotten deeper. Ore within Copper Cliff Mine was said to be extremely profitable as production became extremely high in the early years of 1900's. Nickel and Copper alone weren't consider to be worth that much but they did however maintain a good operational life. Other accommodations like schools we're built for the miners children, even post offices presented their own services toward Copper Cliff. Eventually Copper Cliff had also gotten its very own bakery, barber shop and general store which was developed for supplying the miners and their own families.
Company officials of the Canada Copper Company did not commence further shaft sinking phases within 1902. All development during this time period was pretty much confined to the newly developed thirteenth level or the 972 foot section. In general the company was on another mission when it had further expanded the drift section that was now totalling 140 feet before continuing towards a north drift for a distance of 30 feet. Much of this drift is mainly aimed to follow the extend of the ore body within the Copper Cliff Mining Operation. Further along this drift its reported that the mine branches 33 feet to the northwest, and 42 feet southwest. At about 72 feet inside this branch section, the mine is known to have gone through a diamond drilling exploration phase that obtained 193 feet of core sampling to test this vein zone. Much of the whole entire operation is than known to branch in both directions by the method of drifting. During this period the Canadian Copper Company would also extract most the ore from the tenth level to the twelfth level of this mine. Almost all ore production within this zone is known to be extracted from the third and fourth level stope sections. All the muck from this extraction is than place on a tramway, where it then travels to the lower level of the old shaft. The Canadia Copper Company had also added another expansion to its Power station as a new battery of three return Tumblar Boilers with automatic Stokers was installed. Further demolish was escalated when the company had completed demolished the Inadequate Plant. A new and more powerful electricgenerating stion was soon constructed to take over the old plant. More so this power supplying unit is known to be constructed in a building that's located next to the engine house. When the building was built, the company then had addeded all the necessary parts in running this new Power Station. It was strongly reported that the plant had consisted of two Dynamos and engines, and a new 20 by 40 foot coal shed.
The newly form Town of Copper Cliff soon had gotten a lot of national attention as the Copper Cliff Mine presented a heavy work force. Compare to its previous years of operating the Copper Cliff Mining Operation had employ about 1000 people to its workforce. Other mining operations around the Sudbury Basin had only employ anywhere from 500 to 600 people. Mining operations within Copper Cliff Mine weren't considered to be that rough but they did possess their own risks like any mining operation does. Although not a lot of people fear these risks as the money was good but the work was hard. This also was said to have eliminated the thought of something to actually happen within this mining operation. Even working conditions we're said to be ok but weren't considered to be the best in production. Eventually the Copper Cliff Mine had added another shaft to its production in 1905 to speed up ore extraction. The shaft took the company one year to construct before it had connected with the six sublevel. Over 1000 feet of drilling had taken places within this project as mine operation we're slowly becoming even more rapid. Another automatic skip was also added so that the mine was able to feed the mill at a faster pace. Shaft No.2 in general also establish several of it's own sublevels to extract deep pockets of ore. Not to mention the drilling crew of Copper Cliff Mine was uncovering new deposits of cooper-nickel ore. Over the next few years the Copper Cliff Mine would extract more then a few million tons of ore from its project. By 1911 electricity soon eliminated the use of steam power within mining as a whole new electricity plant was establish. These types of upgrades had change the mining industry completely as new technology became developed. Most of all mining technology in 1911 became more efficient then the olden day technology. Although olden day mining technology is still considered to be use in todays mining operating mines.
Production of 1911 was commonly steady and the No. 1 shaft operation had gotten more deeper where more valuable ore resources became discovered. Even surface diamond drill levels were indicating new profitable ore to be mine from Copper Cliff Mine. Nevertheless nickel and copper prices would once again increase as World War 1 put a medium demand for them. These metals weren't consider as important toward this war era as they didn't use them within manufacturing of military surplus. With a small increase towards the nickel market Sudbury's Nickel mines were able to make some sort of profit from the metal. By the end of World War 1 nickel soon decreased in value once again which made company officials stalk pile all their ore till the metal markets would once again increase.
Between 1915 and 1929, nickel and copper operations at the Copper Cliff Mine became extremely steady. The mines No, 1 shaft was well exceeding 6,456 feet 0f underground workings which included 10 underground ore extracting levels. While the mines No. 2 shaft had over 2,000 feet of underground workings and multiple ore pockets that became discover that same year. With multiple ore discoveries on the Copper Cliff Mine and the Stobie Mine projects. This gave company officials a whole new transformation as the International Nickel Company and the Canadian Copper Company had joined forces. The reasoning for this was that the Stobie Mine had multiple ore discoveries on the borderlines of the Frood Project. Well these mines pretty much connected with each other once the agreement was made between the International Nickel Company and The Canadian Copper Company. Even the great depression didn't have a huge impact on the Sudbury area like it had on other parts of Ontario. Nickel within the great depression era was commonly identify to have stood where it always stood. This massive economy down fall wasn't considered to have effected the nickel and copper markets so much.
In 1917, the Canadian Copper Company was well underway with several mining operations that included Crean Hill, Copper Cliff, Creighton, and Dill Quartz Quarry. It was reported that the company's president at the time was known as A.D Miles As production from the Copper Cliff Mine became extremely heavy, the Canadian Copper Company had decided to upgrade the Copper Cliff Smelter compaacity by installing another furnace known as the No. 8. Furnace No. 8 was also the same size of furnace No. 7 which was engineered to be 25 feet by 6 inches. It was rather reported to be pretty fascinating as this would change production completely. By upgrading the capacity this had allow the company to discharge the slag into settlers instead of having to haul the slag to its furnace. Much of the whole slag operation was first started with the use of Converters that had directly poured the slag into Settlers.
Although 1939 would pretty much change the whole market towards nickel and copper mines. This era was commonly known as World War 2 that majorly needed nickel and nickel alloys towards armour plating, and salt erosion which effected vehicles in so many ways. Nickel before the war era of 1939 was considered to have only bin at a steady price of 22 cents a ton compare to World War 2 which put nickel to 60 cents a ton. With high end productions the company was able to make a fortune from this national war era. Over 22 million tons of nickel became shipped from Sudbury to national commercial buys who needed this metal. At the time Canadian nickel was also considered to be controlled heavily by the government of Canada. They also impose laws towards the sale of Nickel as Canada didn't want just any country to get its own extracted nickel. But a year later these laws change when company and government officials had seen the major production of Nickel and Nickel alloys. Sales of Nickel were being conducted throughout many international countries as money play an important role towards this. World War 2 alone was able to make INCO a shit ton of money from extracted nickel resources while copper also had its own value. More then a few million dollars of extracted nickel became sold by INCO and its large producing Nickel mines in the Sudbury area. Even the mills of Copper Cliff wouldn't stop working as there was far to much commercial interest in nickel resources. Many mining operations also became establish around Copper Cliff by other rival cooperate owners who were eager to start production. However, by the end of the war era nickel had dramatically decreased in value once again to only 40 cents a ton. But with enough profit made the International Nickel Company started expanding its operations of the Copper Cliff Mine. Some of these expansions included a whole new shaft towards Copper Cliff Mine, and a whole new water pump system and house to dewater underground water levels. Other things which were developed include a new rock crushing machine shop and a mechanical shop. Even shaft No. 3 had reach over 1000 feet of underground workings and included 5 of its own sublevels. While shaft No. 1 was becoming extremely deep within its production as it was sunken down to 5, 435 feet. The last but not least shaft No.2 was additionally also sunken down to 3,00 feet and include two additional sublevels.
By the late 1940s production of the Copper Cliff Mine became pretty steady as ore became heavily extracted at a massive rate. Company officials had also put in new smelting mills which gave the mill a capacity of 1200 tons of ore per day. Much of the ore shipping was becoming establish by a railway connection from the Transcontinental spur line which wasn't located to far from Copper Cliff Mine Site. Much of the transportation also became conducted by this railway spur as road were just becoming developed. Even shafts No. 1 and No.2 had gotten deeper from their original ground levels. Just the production of shaft No. 1 had put operation levels more then 6,000 feet below ground levels. Several sublevels also became developed from these massive shaft expansions towards Copper Cliff Mine in the 1940s. Some of the Sublevels were considered to be more then a kilometer long and contain heavy ore production to this very day. Much of the work on shaft No.2 also establish a series of ore extraction operations. Shaft No. 2 alone was also considered to have reach a stunning depth of 3,573 feet. With two production shafts corporate owners were able to extract multiple tons of ore bearing rock from Copper Cliff Mine. In some case i was told that ore became extracted in large quantities which reach over a few million tons of ore per one year. This large scale estimation was what had company owners making money at a large pace towards commercial buyers. Nickel at the time wasn't considered to be anything big at it had only reach about $3 a ton in the 40s. However, with multiple Nickel resources a company had enough profit to start a full scale mining operation from just nickel. Sometimes the nickel would come out from the mine in extremely high grade value which made it more profitable.
As the 50s started to roll in the price of nickel and copper ore was considered to be at a steady rate from $3 a ton to $3.50 a ton. Much of the nickel stock would rise and fall but it would never go below the $3 a ton. Operational levels of Copper Cliff Mine had also slowly started to increase as technology became more expensive like anything else. Just to conduct massive explorations of the Copper Cliff Mine cost a fortune for the company. Mine sampling of the Copper Cliff Mine was always heavy from underground levels to above ground surface levels. But nevertheless the diamond drill samples would always indicate a new ore discovery within the claim. Much of the employees at copper cliff Mine had also gain an increase to their wages as miners now made $5 an hour and all other personnel made $8.50 an hour. Miners compare to other operational workers never did make the same amount in wages. All categories within the mine was mainly establish to have their own wages as different positions differ from each other. Most of the time these people tend to work in unstable but secure work locations which are also extremely wet. They also sometimes possesses many different hazards and dangerous that come with mining.
Between 1960 and 1970, the Copper Cliff Mine was in steady production and employ over 4000 workers. Even the shafts became deepened as the mining operation became heavy at times. Ore which was recover from this underground mining operation became carry out by automatic skips. As these skips work like conveyors they soon overwhelm milling operations as ore was consistent. From 1960 to 1970 over a few thousand tons of ore became processed at the Copper Cliff Mill. These tasks we're perform by the many employees who took things to the next level within this mining operation. Much of the work was a lot easier at this time period as nickel was more then rising in the markets. Not to mention new technology had even change the mining industry completely. New machinery which became introduced to the extracting game had soon establish some sort of credit. In general there was several different types of machinery which became evented during this time periods. Each machine carry out it's very own characteristics towards operational levels within the Copper Cliff Mine. As prices in the nickel market started to rise even more INCO would soon make a huge profit which escaladed into the millions.
Although all mining operations soon became suspended in 1998 as INCO became sold to the Brazilian Vale, Mining at the former INCO mine sites continue as several operations are still being conducted within the Sudbury Basin. From 1998 to 2004, the Copper Cliff Mining operation had stood silently abandoned from any more ore production. The reason for this was because Vale who had bought INCO for a couple million dollars was only getting started. Although productions at these mine sites still continue to this very day as all ownership has bin given to Vale. Vale even considers the Copper Cliff Mining operation to be apart of the Deep mine projects within the Sudbury Basin. These include 2 different mines which are also involve in the Deep Mine project. They are commonly known as the Craighton Mine and The Frood-Stobie Mine productions.