The first ever geological survey that was made in the area was under taken by Alexander Murray, 1852, under the direction of William Logan. Much of the examination by the two had taken place near cross lake, which Mr. Murray identified the rocks of the Metamorphic Series, but did not attempt to subdivide them further. Another survey was done by H.G Vennor who did some early work in Kalander Township, and had also been included in geological maps in parts of Eastern Ontario in 1868.
The Richardson Feldspar Mine was first discovered by H. RIchardson of Kingston, Ontario, Canada in 1899. This whole entire discovery had made the prospector incorporate his own company called the Kingston Feldspar, and Mining Company after securing mineral rights to his discover. Mining at the time was also being done during the winter months as it was a lot cheaper to operate. In 1901, the company was rather making preparations in mining 10,000 long tonnes by the middle of March,1902. He had also employed a force of 30 miners with 50 personnel to haul the ore to the railway. This haulage had proposed the route to Glendower on the Kingston & Pembroke Railway. Most of this became shorted by 2 miles when a pontoon been use to divided the body of water, and the road was also available in the summer.
Mining at the Richardson Feldspar Mine had first started in 1900, when 4,500 tonnes of ore was mined. This mined ore was later shipped to the Pottery Works United States. A sample lot at the time had also been sent to England for distribution among the manufacturing plants there.
In 1902, the Richardson Feldspar Mine was under active development during the winter, and spring months. Production at the mine was also being achieved at 200 tonnes per a day as demands for the feldspar were high. Transportation of the Feldspar was also being achieved by the summer route from the mine to the Railway line. Most of this route was rather done by following a road for a quarter of a mile to Thirteen Island. All the ore is than transported onto three flat barges and towed across the other shore at three quarters of a mile distance. Much of the team of 50 employees than draw the loads 1 1/2 miles farther by road to the terminal of the 2-mile branch of railroad run. Most of the ore is rather transported by sleigh within the winter season by crossing the ice. Its than continued onward by transporting the ore by road for a distance of 2 miles farther where the winter loading dock once was.
Mining at the Richardson Feldspar was being done by quarries that consisted of an area of about 150 feet by 200 feet. Most of the area at the time was also completely stripped with the exception of a small central portion. This was being done because a thick layer of clay had overlain the Feldspar. These main workings were once extended as open cuts from the end to the west side for a distance of 175 feet by 50 feet wide by 35 feet deep. The most westerly face was also known to have been raised in three benches of 5 feet each from the south end. Another pit was also under development that was now 50 feet long by 50 feet wide by 20 feet deep. A number of other workings at the time were also scattered in various parts of the mine area. Rich feldspar is known to also cover the floor of this whole mining area, and was partially all clea, and pure. Much of the west side of the main wall is also known to have been capped off with granite in which the feldspar was associated with it. In order to mine this feldspar, the company had to blast this capping off, and remove in order to avoid contaminating the Feldspar beneath. Further work was also done to the mined feldspar as cobbing, and sorting was being done on the pit floor. Generally, this was done in order to obtain the much cleaner feldspar so it wouldn't have to be cobbed and sorted on the surface. Hoisting at the time had also been done by a swinging arm derrick that was operated by an engine from the adjoining power house. A small amount of drilling was also done by the use of steam power within 1902.
Buildings that were officially built in 1902, had comprised of an office, stables, blacksmith shop, and boiler and hoisting house. Most of the men who work at the time were also boarded in a farm house within distance of the mine. However, this accommodation at the time was proven unsatisfactory, and the company would built new houses in the future. Power which was obtained had came from a 30 h.p. locomotive type boiler, and a double drum duplex cylinder hoist engine.
Much attention was also being aimed at buying the feldspar at market prices as it was pure, and good for pottery in the United States. Other additions at the time were also made to the plant, and the mines shipping facility. Most of the production, along with mining was being achieved during a 12-month period. Other additions at the time were also made when a cable way was installed for carrying the spar from the quarry to the lake. From this point on the Feldspar is than taken across the lake to another small lake, and floated by scows to the end of the branch railway line at the old Glendower Iron Mine. During the winter months of 1903, the spar was rather teamed directly to the railway. From here the spar is than taken by train to Kingston, at a distance of 30 miles, and by boat across Lake Ontario. In order assure its market, the spar was first ground into a powder, in New Jersey. The pure spar produce in powder is than used in pottery making, in which the demand was needed. Extensive development had also taken place when the quarry was now 600 feet long by 200 feet wide, and the western fac had a height of 50 feet.
During 1905, the Richardson Feldspar Property was still a chief producer in Ontario, Canada. As exploratory work continued along with development it was proven that this mine would be a heavy producer. Production that was being achieved at this mine was now producing 130 tonnes per day. The system of haulage was being achieved from the mine to the Glendower siding. Some changes were also made during the year as the road from the mine to the lake became straightened and shortened. This had rather made it possible for the team of 50 employees to make two trips to the loading dock.
Further development was also being achieved at the No. 2 Pit, in which the westside of the quarry had a depth of 75 feeet. It was also known for covering a workable area of 250 feet by 50 feet. Much of the north side of the No. 2 Pit had an area of 300 feet by 50 feet, and an average depth of 50 feet. This was generally caused due to the evaluation having a difference of 65 feet from the top of the stope. Shaft sinking had also commenced during 1905, in which was achieving a depth of 30 feet below the surface between the No. 1 and 2 Pits. The reason for developing this shaft was mainly aimed at draining the water from the whole pit, where the No. 10 Cameron Pump had raised it to the surface. Feldspar in the No. 2 Pit is also considered for dipping to the northwest under a body of quartz which appears on the surface.
A rock house was also place under development during the operating year of 1905 and was built on the hill near the boiler house where the No. 1 derrick was situated. The hill was rather 53 feet in height to the sheave, and hoisting was done by the means of a bucket attached to the car on a 2-inch cable. Ore that came from the mine had been transported by a cable in which had passed over the top of the head-frame. Much of this was being achieved as the bucket attached to the cable had ran down the cable-way to the pit floor. Hoisting from the northeast of the No. 2 Pit was also achieved by a derrick in 1905. Most of the ore had rather went through sizing screens, and a sorting floors that were placed in the rock house. The impure ore was first sorted out on floor of the rock house, and good grade ore was dumped into pockets from which it would empty into the buckets.
Mining and management of the site was mainly owned and operated by the Kingston Feldspar Company in 1906. Other major changes had also taken place when a sump was sunk during the winter months, and a 12-foot stope was being carried back from this sump to the No. 1 and No. 2 Pits. It was in the north-easterly end of the No. 2 Open Cut that had been extend, and a 25-foot face of feldspar was opened up. A large quantity of quartz along the hanging wall of the north-easterly pit was also removed. The Quartz was mainly being used for grading the tramway that was recently constructed on the property in 1906. Further geological statements had reported that the feldspar had appeared to be dipping quite normally to the southeast. It was also at this time when the main pit was extended further as it was reaching a depth of 80 feet from the start of mining operations.
Construction at the time had also followed suit when a new tramway was constructed from the mine to the lake, at a distance of 1,300 feet. All the ore cars were also being hauled by team up a slight grade to the top of the hill, where by a system of balanced hoisting of cars are run down grade to the barge on the lake. A drum with friction brake was also used for regulating the speed.
The Richardson Feldspar Mine is located in Bedford township, and was in production for the greater part of feldspar that was mined in Canada. All the feldspar from the mine is directly shipped to the markets in the United States. Most of the ore at the time had came from the No. 1 and No. 2 Pits within the operating year of 1907. The main pit at the time had also achieved even further depths of 90 feet from its highest point. Much of the sump within the center of these two pits had been also deepened, and stopes were carried back from the sump. Quartz that are known to occur between the No. 1 and No. 2 Pits, and overhanging the feldspar of the No. 2 Pit had also been mined to ensure greater safety. Most of this was done in order to protect the workings, and the quartz was used as smelter flux by the manufactures in Welland.
In 1908, the shape of the open pit had now been designed like a horseshoe, with the central part of the horseshoe being a capping of quart. Most of the quartz at the time was being mined as smelter flux which was shipped to Welland. In addition to this, a total of 6,000 tonnes of quartz were shipped during the winter of 1908. Extensive development was also undertaken when the pit now was 130 feet below the top part of this deposit. Mining was mainly done from the main stope that had been continued northwest from the No. 2 Pit under capping of schist. During the summer months of operating this project the feldspar was hoisted by derricks, and cableway in 2-ton boxes which were lowered on to cars at the surface. Each of these cars were then let down the hill to the barge on the lake by a system of balanced hoisting.
Shipments by the company in 1910, were also being achieved steadily during the summer. At the time, this mine was also the largest producer of feldspar within the whole country of Canada, and United States. Work that was continued was confined to a large open pit with a dimension of 500 feet in length, 200 feet in width, and 130 feet in depth. Most of the hoisting at the time was also being done by the means of a cable-way across the widest part of this pit. Work at the time was also focus on removing the quartz capping during the winter months. It was also produced in order to take off the capping of gneiss that occurred on the northside of the pit for a distance of 20 to 25 feet. Generally, the capping it self had a thickness of 10 to 20 feet, with good feldspar.
The Kingston Feldspar and Mining Company had continued operations at its feldspar project in 1912. Feldspar, along with the quartz were also being teameed to Godfrey, and then shipped by rail in box cars. During the summer months it was also reported that much of the Feldspar was loaded on flat cars at Glendower Siding, and transshipped to boats at Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Much of the method of operating at the time was still being achieved by open pitting with the use of open cut methods. Other major plans at the time were being made towards building an incline skip track, and to erect a concentrating plant. A devastation had rather occurred during the summer months on August, 1912, when the engine room, and boiler house were destroyed.
Production from the Richardson Feldspar Property was also considerably increased in 1913. Following plans from 1912, the company had build an incline skip track, and a cobbing house. Even extensive stripping was undertaken to uncover new ground between the old pit, and Desert Lake in 1913. Most of this stripping was rather abandoned as the overburden in this area was found to have continued to a considerable depth.
Steady shipments of feldspar were rather made from the Richardson Feldspar Property in 1914. Not only was production and mining extensive but this mine was still the largest produce of feldspar in Canada. Some mining at the time had also commenced at Desert Lake, when the company had shipped ore to Thirteen Island, and Thirteen Island Lakes to Glendower Siding.
Some down falls had rather occurred during the year when a fire had destroyed a part of the grinding plant at Charlotte, New York. This had rather cause the company to do late shipments as the necessary repairs were being done. Most of the spar that came from the Richardson Property was stockpiled at the mine, and a large tonnage was then shipped by rail to potash plants. A considerable amount of stripping was also done on Desert Lake in the south end of the pit. Further stripping had continued to result in heavy overburden of clay, in which some places was 30 feet deep.
Another change in ownership had occurred in 1916, when Feldspars, Limited had acquired the ownership of the Richardson Feldspar Mine. Some extensive changes were progressing towards the Desert Lake portion of the Richardson Feldspar Property. Production of spar from this pit was achieved by open cut methods of mining. A considerable amount of development had also taken place when the pit was now 350 feet by 100 feet wide, and in places 100 feet deep. Further intentions by the new company management was aiming at sinking a shaft in the wall rock near the south pit. Hoisting would then be done through this shaft by a derrick, and open bucket system. Even more development was undertaken when boarding camps were put up near the pit. Other intentions of the company were aimed at building an aerial tramway in order to carry the ore to the track.
Work in 1918, was carried on by Feldspars, Limited at a maximum capacity, owing to the demand for war material. Mining, and production at the time was also being achieved rapidly till November, 1918. Most of this was done because the demand for feldspar had ceased, and the work was discontinued in December. There were also no additional changes made towards operations, and stoping was confined to benches principally in the southern end of the quarry.
The Richardson Feldspar Property was later taken over by the Canadian Flint, and Spar Company, Limited. The company at the time had owned lot 1, Concession I, of Bedford Township, Frontenac County. Operations at the RIchardson Feldspar Mine in continuous operations throughout 1947. Most of the feldspar that was produce from this mine was mined in the center area of the old pit along the west wall. Production during the start up of mining operations was also known for producing 1,832 tonnes of Feldspar.
Mining operations at the Richardson Feldspar Mine were continued at small production levels in 1948. A small increase was rather made during the year when 2,878 tonnes of Feldspar were mined and shipped. By the end of 1948, it was also reported that all the commercial grade feldspar was removed, and operations were than discontinued.
In 1970, the Long Lake Zinc Mine was taken over by W.D Beaton of Montreal who proposed the Kingston Project to Lynx-Canada Exploration, Limited, to test the Long Lake Zinc Deposit. Most of the work at the time was also aimed at finding deeper extensions of the near surface sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, pyrrhotite, and silver mineralization. Within the same year, Lynx Canada Explorations, had purchase the mineral rights, and leased the surface rights, and were joined by Canadian Reynolds Metals Company, Limited. This had also gaven Lynx-Canada 45% interest in the project while Canadian Reynolds Metals Company obtained 55% interest. With agreements made, Lynx Canada had performed detailed geological mapping of the property, and a magnetometer survey, induced polarization, resistivity, self potential, gravimetric, and soil geochemistry surveys Some of the best responses that were taken from the geophysical surveys for delinating the ore-body were done by induced polarization. In addition to this work, it had also delineated five anomalous zones from the exploratory work that was done on the property at the time. Zone three was not only the largest of the three but was also adjacent to old workings, and the extension of these at depth. The foremost suggestive depth that was done at the time had indicated that the spherical bodies from this zone was 150 feet. Zone No. 1 at the time had also indicated economical possibilities but was not worked after drilling this anomalous zone. Zones 2, 4, and 5 had also been accounted for by clay rich trenches or dissiminated sulphides within the mafic intrusive body near the contact of the carbonated zone. Magnetometer surveys also became useful in defining the contact of the mafic intrusion with the carbonated metasediments. Principal contacts had also been defined by outlining a 2000 gama contrast in line profiles, and were accurate to within 50 feet.
Harding had also conducted prominante geological surveys of the area to the Grenville Series and realized the distinction of old mafic intrusions, and some what younger granites, and gneiss. (1942, 1947).
It was in 1972, when Lynx Canada Explorations, Limited had made agreements with the Ontario Government in order to concentrate zinc. By this time the company had also announced the plans in September, 1972, for production of zinc at the Long Lake Zinc Mine. This agreement at the time was also held in joint partnership with Reynolds Metals Company, Limited. It was also at this time when further exploration work was being conducted on the Long Lake Zinc Property on the South Half of Lot 3 in concession V and Vi of Olden Township. Drilling at the time had rather indicated reserves of 70,000 tonnes grading 23% Zn per tonne of ore mined from this project. Pb is also associated with this deposit that rather had assayed at 4% per tonne of ore produce. Plans at the time were being aimed a mining this zones along with other zones by an inclined ramp that would take 14 months to complete at a rate of 200 tonnes ore per day. Ore from the mine would also be concentrated in order to produce a recovery of 35% Zn in a Heavy Media Separation Plant. Much of the concentrate that becomes produce would also be trucked under contract basis to the St. Joe Mineral Corporation, of Balmat, New York,
Even more changes would be made when Lynx-Canada had conducted a rather massive diamond drilling campaign 134 holes, totalling 32,900 feet in length. Most of these diamond drill holes were also done at 20 to 50-foot centers to a depth of 200 to 400 feet in depth. Drilling that was done on the property had additionally outline three massive lenses of Marmatite (Iron rich Sphalerite) mineralization that had been lying vertically. One of the largest lenses of Marmatite was also reported to have been 200 feet long, 80 feet deep, and up to 25 feet wide. Much attention at the time was being aimed at driving a decline ramp for a length of 100 feet, in which branches were made on the ore-body to the east, and west. Development had not stop here, as the ramp was continued onward for a total length of 635 feet as it was aimed at intersecting the ore-body. A total of 457 feet was driven in waste in which 150 feet was advanced in ore, and 28 feet was done towards raising. Following development drilling had also indicated that the ore-body would end up being extended to a depth of 200-feet below the surface. Ore that was taken out from the mine prior to dumping waste material had amounted to 1,000 tonnes of zinc ore on hand.
The Richardson Zinc Mine was later taken over by the historical Lynx-Canada Explorations, Limited, and the Canadian Reynolds Metals Company, Limited, in 1973. Preparations at the time were also being made when milling was first commenced on March, 13, 1973, and full production was achieved in April, 1973. This had resulted in holding an official opening that was made on June, 27, 1973. Ore that came from the open pit was treated in a heavy media separation plant at a rate capacity of 200-300 tonnes of ore. Most of the ore after being processed, had also been shipped by trucks to the St Joe Minerals Corporation at Balmat, New York, United States. This resulted in receiving 31,000 tonnes of concentrate that had contained 12.5 million pounds of zinc. Another 7,000 tonnes of concentrate were rather shipped from November, to the end of December, which contained 3 million pounds of Zinc in concentrate. The ore-body which was mined by the company had contained 23% zinc (Zn) per tonne, which was estimated at 30,000,000 pounds of zinc with increasing ore reserves. Much of the main plant that was built at the time had included a workshop. Core shack with office space, a compressor shed, a generator house, a crusher ramp, and crusher conveyor belts, wash house, heavy-media separating plant, ore, and waste stockpiles, and settling pond for mine drainage water. Mining operations at the time were also carried out by using trackless equipment in order to obtain the ore from the underground workings, and the open pit operation. Most of the main adit zone was also developed in a previously worked open pit operation, and below ground a two-drill jumbo was used, and three load haul dump machines had carried out the ore to the surface. From here the ore would also be automatically dumped into a grizzly, and a 15 by 30-inch jaw crusher. Ore from underground was first extracted by driving an 8 by 10-foot ramp in 20% waste which turned off at angles to sill out the ore lens. Ore that was taken from the underground workings was mined from 15 stope sections with an average stope width of 12 feet at the face. One the material was crushed, the product was screened for fines and sent directly to the ore-pile for further shipment. Material between 3/16 and 1 ½ inches was carefully washed and sent to the heavy-media separator. The Wemco Separator which had used ferro silicon media allowed 1% average loss of Zn because of the clean break between the gauge. (Calcite, and Calc-silicates, and ore (Sphalerite). Much of the average ore grade was 12%, and had become beneficiated to 20% Zn for shipments, while the local 40% ore grade had beneficiated a grade between 25-30% Zinc
Geology of the Long Lake Zinc Mine.
The lenses and previously known lenses are known to strike northeasterly, which are steeply dipping band of grenville marble that’s 4,000 feet long, and 150 to 400 feet wide. Much of the marble is also intruded by diorite, and gabbro, and by the later granite. Many different name changes had taken place for this mine which is now famously known as the Long Lake Zinc Mine. These names had also included the historical Richardson Feldspar Mine, and the Olden Zinc Mine, which have been mine in the turn of century which first started in 1897. Most of the mining activies that had taken place prior to the owner changes were mainly done from small pits with no drilling done on them. A total of 5 shafts are rather present at this property that have been all developed at the turn of the century as prospect shafts, and pump shafts. These ore-bodies rather do not outcrop on surface and lie at the wester end of the Marble Band in vicinity of the most westerly pre-1913 shaft known as the No. 5. This is also at a distance of 800 feet west of the main prospect shaft known as the No. 2 Shaft, and this deposit is known to have 2 modes of origin. This includes low temperature sedimentary deposition, that concentrated by recrystallization that’s associated by metamorphism, and hydrothermal replacement association with the granite intrusion.
The Long Lake area is rather known to comprise of 275 km, and is 14 km by 20 km, which covers much of Frontenac County, Lennox County, and Addington County, in southern Ontario, Canada. Explorations for mineral within this area have rather been ongoing for the turn of the century, which had been mainly concentrated on the zinc deposits on Long Lake. The most recent work up to date was under taken from 1973 to 1974, which yielded 9,567 tonnes of zinc at a market value of 1.23 million dollars.
Rocks that occur in the area are rather known to be also divided into three different origin dates that included the Precambrian time scale of the area. The foremost earliest rocks to be exposed included aging of 2500 million years, with the middle being between 2500 to 1500 million years, and the late rock orogeny being less than 1500 million years.
Much of the Long Lake Area is also known to be apart of the Central Metasedimentary Belt just like the Richardson Polymetalic Mine. The Hasting Basin along with the Frontenac Axis Segments are known to be both intruded within this geological area. Prime Units that are present within the area metavolcanics, and metasediments of Late Precambrian Age, and Late Precambrian Felsic, and Mafic intrusive bodies. This also includes late tectonic pegmatite dikes and irregular masses that cut the cut the subcrustal rocks.
Some of the oldest rocks in the area are considered to also be the mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks, and the mafic to felsic Gneiss, and anatectites, which the latter is much higher in grade. This foremost sucession is also composed with tholeiitic basalt which tends to be subalalitic, and minor amounts of calc-alkali rhyodacite. A minor amount of the intercalated carbonate, and clastic siliceous metasediments are also associated with this unit. Although similar in composition, its rather difficult to correlate these rocks directly with metavolcanics of the Hermon Group, and rocks directly on strike with these volcanics are known to be apart of the Grenville series.
The zinc mineralization is rather known to also be associated with the carbonate metasediments where they are known to occur as large inclusions or xenoliths within the Mountain Grove Mafic intrusion or in carbonate units that occur near the border contact of the mafic intrusion. Ore within the area is also stratabound with subsequence reconcentration during deformation-metamorphism. This also suggest that these deposits would contain highly concentrate, restricted of ore grade material confined mainly to the carbonated rocks.
The Long Lake Zinc Deposit is situated in carbonate metasediments of late Precambrian age, and is surrounded by mafic intrusive rocks of the Mountain Grove Mafic Intrusion, that’s also of the same age. Irregular masses and dikes of granitic pegmatite intruded the above lithologies. The Carbonated Metasediments are calcite rich, and have three modes of occurrence, the first being coarse grained granoblastic calcite marble, fine grained to medium grained granoblastic laminated calcite marble with continuous well defined 0.5 to 2 cm thick layers, and very coarse grained of first unit. Each of the types mention are also found in continuous units which grade into each other over short distances. Quartz is rather an uncommon mineral associated with the carbonate, and on the weathered surface with small disseminated pyroxene grains. The band of carbonated metasediments has a total strike length of nearly 1 km and a total width at the surface of 180 m. Large vugs of carbonate had also occurred underground, and had well developed growths of quartz and locally diopside, but no sulphide mineralization had developed in vugs of this type.
Assays taken from the mine during the time of production had given off 21% Zn, 3.3% Pb, 17.3% S, 103 ppm Ag, and 53 ppm Cu per tonne. This also included 52.0% Zn, 6.5% Fe, 29.9% S, 108 ppm Cu, and 11ppm Pb per tonne. Another assay had also indicated 33.4% Zn, 6.8% Fe, 12.3% S, 2240 ppm Pb, 104 ppm Cu, and 22 ppm Ag per tonne. Further prospecting to the South, East, West, North, and North-East, and South-West, had no encountered any Sphalerite by various companies.
Richardson-Oldsen Feldspar (Long Lake Zinc) Mine - Contains 60 million pounds of Zinc from 140,000 tonnes.