1943 The Cardiff Uranium Fluorspar Mine was first discovered by F.R. Marshall in 1943, when he formed what was to become Cardiff Fluoride Mines, Limited. It was during this time period when extensive explorations had continued on a Fluorspar vein. This whole entire discovery was rather made on Lot. A, Concession of Cardiff Township, Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada.
Mining operations on the newly discovered Fluorspar vein was commenced on August, 1943, when blasting, and stripping had opened up the vein at the top of the hill. This whole entire stripping, and blasting procedure would also open up the vein for a distance of 500 feet. There was also 300 tonnes of disseminated fluorspar ore that was stockpiled after this procedure had been completed. It was also within this time period when uranium oxide was discovered from the blasting, which took place.
1947 The Cardiff Fluorite Mines, Limited had continued mining operations of the future Cardiff Fluorspar-Uranium Mine in 1947. For the most part it was stated that the company had staked a total of 11 claims, which covered an area of 580 acres, within Cardiff Township, Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada.
Some more diamond drilling would continue to be carried out on the Flurospar vein which had a total length of 2,000 feet of drilling. Far more expanding would continue when an adit was driven for a distance of 133 feet into the hill side in order to intersect the fluorspar vein on Lot. A, Concession XVII. This whole entire development procedure was reported to have started on October, 1947. As mining continued this newly developed adit had started to become further expand by 73 feet of drifting on the crosscut section. Another adit was also started on December, and became driven on the south half of Lot. 1, in concession XIX of Cardiff Township.
1948 It was at this time when development had continued to extend the adit workings by crosscutting, and drifting procedures. Further so it was reported that the "C" adit was expanded by 73 feet of crosscutting, and 75 feet of drifting. Even more development had occurred on the newly driven "E" adit Zone, which was opened up by 55 feet of crosscutting, and 85 feet of drifting. Diamond Drilling during 1948, had consisted of 600 feet of surface drilling, and1,276 feet of underground drilling. Almost all of this became establish because the Cardiff Fluorite Mines, Limited., had wanted to test the fluorspar, and uranite occurrences that were uncovered.
1949 The "E" Zone adit was rather being explored when it was driven 66 feet further on the crosscut, and now had totalled 611 feet in length. Besides developing the adit it was rather stated that a clearing was being made to sink the shaft on the "C' Zone, which was located on Lat. A, Concession XVII of Cardiff Township. Some more explorations continued when diamond drilling had consisted of 19 holes, totalling 4,373 feet from the surface.
1950 A huge amount of expanding had taken place when the Cardiff Fluorite Mines, Limited. had contracted much of the shaft development. In addition to this it was stated that P. Harris Mining Contractors became awarded with a contract to sink a two compartment shaft. Additionally the contract had stated that the shaft would reach a total depth of 275 feet below the surface as it inclined at a 49 degree angle. With this development taking place the company had also came to agreements to establish two levels at 125, and 250 feet. For the most part these levels will then be opened up on the footwall of fluorspar vein which contained a small amount of uranite. By the end of 1950, the contractors had additionally sunken the two compartment inlined shaft to a depth of 171 feet, This whole entire development phase would also open up the 125 foot level by 39 feet of crosscutting, and 342 feet of drifting. A small amount of diamond drilling had consisted of 1 hole, totalling 50 feet in length from underground.
1951 Development of the No. 1, two compartment, inclinded shaft had continued to expand the workings once again. By this time the P. Harrison Mining Contractors had started to expand the 125 foot level by extending the workings by 196 feet of drifting, Even shaft sinking was completed to a total depth of 275 feet below the surface, and had also opened up the 250 foot level by 51 feet of crosscutting, and 177 feet of drifting. In total lateral development the mine now had consisted of 934 feet of drifting, 10,96 feet of crosscutting, and 52 feet of raising. Diamond drilling consisted of 5 underground holes, totalling 324 feet in length. Mining operations at the Cardiff Uranium Mine became suspended due to further assaying of the core samples.
1953 Cardiff Fluorite Mines, Limited had renamed it self to form the newly establish Cardiff Uranium Mines, Limited. No work was being done on the mine within this time period of forming this newly establish company.
1954 The newly incorporated Cardiff Uranium Mines, Limited, had soon dewatered the main shaft to a depth of 275 feet. It was rather by this time when further development continued to expand the workings by 66 feet of drifting on the 125 foot level.
Lateral development on each level Level Drifts Crosscuts 125 594 feet 40 feet 250 175 feet 50 feet
1955 Further development on the mine had continued to take place throughout this time period, and much of the work was confined to the 125 to 250 foot levels. By this time it also became reported that the 125 foot level had continued to be driven, and blasted further that added an additional 279 feet of drifting. Some more progression from the underground workings would expandd the 250 foot level by 285 feet of drifting. With the mine workings expanding, it was also at this time when a total of 1,139 tonnes was hoisted. More so a small amount of diamond drilling had also occurred within this time period of operating, and consisted of four surface holes, totalling 334 feet in length,.
Lateral development completed on each level Level Drifting Crosscutting 125 875 feet 40 feet 250 460 feet 50 feet
All mining operations became abandoned after continuing to operate throughout the year of 1955.
Geology of the Cardiff Uranium Mine Much of the whole entire property is commonly underlined by a uraninite-fledspar with much of the uraninite crystals occurring in banded veins of calcite, fluorite, and apatite. The presents of exploration that occurred on the property had included extensive explorations procedures. Almost all the work which was done on the property had consisted of Trenching, Diamond Drilling, underground development that includes three adits, and a shaft to the depth of 275 feet with levels at 125, and 250 foot sections.
All the geological showings on the property are known to included different zones known as south to north B,C, A, E. and F. Each other these zones also became grouped in forming the north zone that consists of A, E, and F, and the South Zone became determined as B, and C Zones. Surface explorations on the C zone area had all commence in 1947 on the north half lot of A, Concession XVII of Cardiff Township, Hasting County, Ontario, Canada. Diamond drilling within this section had consisted of 2,000 feet of diamond drilling which became conducted. This resulted in the development of an Adit which was driven east along the hill side and 75 feet of drifting was done from the crosscut.
A second adit was shortly after developed on the E zone which had all commenced on December, 1947, that was situated on south half of lot. 1, concession XIX of Cardiff Township, Hasting County, Ontario, Canada.
Other development procedures were also focus on developing the C zone, when 72 feet of crosscutting, and 75 feet of drifting was completed. Development within 1 948 had also extended the E Adit Zone by 555 feet of crosscutting, and 85 feet of drifting. Diamond drilling within 1948 had consisted of 600 feet of surface, and 1,276 feet of underground. This also resulted in surface trenching which was commonly stated to have amount to 1,060 feet.
Development work in 1949, was mainly being aimed at expanding the crosscut as it was now reaching 617 feet in length. Surface diamond drilling within the C zone had consisted of 19 surfaces holes, totalling 4,373 feet in length.
It was rather in 1950, when a two compartment vertical shaft was additional sunken on the C zone location at an angle of 50 degrees. The shaft which was sunken on the C zone had reach a total depth of 275 feet below the surface. All development on the newly constructed shaft had establish two new levels at 125 and 250 feet. Additionally the company had driven a service adit in which was driven on the 60 foot level of this mining project. Lateral development within the Cardiff Uranium Mine had consisted of 39 feet of crosscutting, and 324 feet of drifting.
Development work within 1951, was aimed at expanding drifts, and crosscuts on the 125 and 250 foot levels. Total lateral development completed on each level had consisted of 196 feet of drifting on the 125 foot level, and 51 feet of crosscutting, and 177 feet of drifting. In all total lateral development the company was able to succeed in the completion of 934 feet of drifting, 1,096 feet of crosscutting, and 52 feet of raising. Underground explorations consisted of 5 diamond drill holes, totalling 325 feet in length. It was at this time when work became suspended in order to evaluate the core samples which were taken from the C zone location.
The vein system within the Cardiff Uranium Mine is commonly known to lie in a band of limy paragneiss, and amphibolite which associated with crystallize limestone. Much of the crystal limestone formation is commonly considered to underlie the western part of the Cardiff Uranium Property. Its main dip is known as 40 to 60 degrees to the east and is known to strike N 10 degrees E. Generally the limestone within the area is overlying by scapolitic amphibolite, limy paragniess, and biotite amphibolite which is in a band that's 300 to 500 feet wide. These gneiss formations are considered to by syenitize, and graded into hybrid syenite gneiss. The whole entire amphibolite, and syenide gneiss zone is intruded by syenide, and pegmatites. Additionally the Calcite-Fluoride Uraninite Vein is to occur chiefly within amphibolite paragneiss band, and in syenide gneiss near the limestone contact. Much of the vein formations in this area are considered to be lenticular, pod shaped, and sometime irregular in shape.
South Zone - The main ore development has been carried out on the south zone where the 275-foot inclined shaft has been sunk. In September, 1954, the shaft was full of water, and the 125-foot and 250-foot levels are not accessible. The surface showings and adits were examined.
On the hillside above the northern adit on the south zone there are two calcite fluorite veins, 30 feet apart, striking N.100E. and dipping 50 0 E. The west or main vein is exposed over a length of 100 feet and has a width of 4 to 5 feet. A sample of this vein material taken by Wolfe and Hogg assayed 25.96 percent CaF2 . The vein material is quite radioactive, and several uraninite crystals were observed by D. F. Hewitt. This vein was picked up in the adit where it is exposed in the south drift over a length of 80 feet. In the adit the vein has a width of 4 feet; several uraninite crystals were observed. A. G. MacKenzie, engineer on the property from 1948 to 1952, reports that this ore averages about 0.052 percent U3O8. However, since the sampling was done by channelling across the face and back it was quite inadequate for this type of occurrence. The only representative type of sampling on this type of coarse uraninite mineralization is a bulk sample of the vein material from the drift. In the north drift the vein splits into several narrow veinlets and cannot be considered ore. At the south end of the drift the vein is exposed 4 feet wide and is op2n to the south.
The second or east vein exposed on surface in a trench has an exposed length of 35 feet and a width of 3 to 4 feet. The content of fluorite is low, and the vein is only slightly radioactive. This vein was not intersected in the adit. A calcite-fluorite vein that appears to be the one developed on the 125- and 250-foot levels outcrops to the south of the shaft for a length of 200 feet. Where seen by the writer in exposures in the footings for the mine plant, the vein ranged from 2 to 4 feet in width and consisted of calcite, fluorite, uraninite, biotite, apatite, scapolite, and pyroxene. High radioactivity was recorded throughout its length.
The main development is now concentrated on the south zone where the main discovery had been explored in 1947-48 by diamond-drilling and the driving of an adit that intersected the vein about 65 below the surface outcrop. Further drilling in 1949 extended the ore zone for a total length of 1,400 feet, a vertical depth of 400 feet, and an indicated width of from 3 to 30 feet. 2 It has a strike of N."l00E. and an easterly dip of about 45 degrees. On surface the vein is exposed continuously for a length of 110 feet and an average width of 5 feet. To the south it passes under overburden, and at the north end it splits into two narrow veins. A character sample of the calcite-fluorite material, weighing about 20 pounds, taken by the Ontario government geologists, Wolfe and Hogg, was analyzed by the Provincial Assayer and returned 25.96 percent CaF2 . The Geiger Mueller counter indicated radio activity along the full length of the vein.
In the adit the main vein has been exposed for a length of 80 feet, a width of 3.7 feet, and a dip of 40 degrees. The south face is still open, whereas in the north drift, the vein splits into several narrow, irregular branches and shows evidence of dying out in this direction. Samples taken from this drift averaged 22.35 percent CaF2 over an average width of 6 feet, and the last sample taken from the south face ran 25.42 percent CaF2 . Eight bulk samples taken at 10-foot intervals along the back of the drift were sent to the Provincial Assayer and returned an average of 0.052 percent U3O8 (radiometric) across an average width of 5 feet. "In 1950 another adit was driven for a total of 181 feet as the haulageway for a 50-degree, inclined, two-compartment shaft, which was then raised to collar on the surface, a distance of 52 feet, and sunk to a depth of 275 feet below the adit horizon. A first level, 125 feet, and a second level 250 feet below the adit were opened up. On the first or 125-foot level, 39 feet of crosscutting and 520 feet of drifting have been completed, of which 395 feet are hi ore. To the north of the crosscut,an ore shoot having a length of 175 feet, an average width of 44 inches, and an average 0.052 percent U3O8 (radiometric) and 13.88 percent CaF2 has been exposed.To the south of the crosscut, three ore shoots have been developed as follows: the first having a length of 60 feet and an average width of 33 inches is averaged at 0.113 percent U3O8 (radiometric) and 19.57 percent CaF2; the second having a ength of 75 feet and an average width of 38 inches is averaged at 0.03 percent U3O8 (radiometric) and 24.07 percent CaF2 ; the third shoot, which is still open at the face, having a length of 85 feet and an average width of 40 inches is averaged at 0.20 percent U3O8 (radiometric) and 15.70 percent CaF2 . A diamond-drill hole,located 70 feet ahead of the present south face, indicates that mineralization continues and is thought to be a continuation of the 85-foot ore shoot."On the second or 250-foot level, 51 feet of crosscutting and 177 feet of drifting have been done. The ore shoot developed at this horizon has a length of 113 feet,an average width of 48 inches, and an average value of 0.14 percent U3O8 (radiometric) and 16.17 percent CaF2 . Both faces are open.
A report for Cardiff Fluorite Mines, Limited, by A. G. MacKenzie, resident engineer, 1953. D. F. Hewitt notes that although calcite-fluorite vein material carrying uraninite has been found in drilling over a length of 1,400 feet, there is no indication of any continuous vein structure; the occurrences are interpreted by him rather as a series of narrow lenticular veins lying within a zone at least 200 feet wide and are thought to consist of several pods and lenses throughout the 1,400-foot length. (radiometric) percent 0.052 0.052 0.113 0.030 0.200 0.140
CaF2 percent 20.00 13.88 19.57 24.07 15.70 16.17
North Zone. — Exploration on the north zone consists of trenching, stripping, diamond-drilling, and one adit. In seventeen trenches in the southern part of the north zone described by Wolfe and Hogg, they concluded that "the greatest true width (of vein) observed is about 5 feet, and the average fluorite content would not be greater than 15 percent. The readings obtained on the Geiger Mueller counter indicate that scattered crystals of uraninite occur throughout the calcite-fluorite lenses. In the E zone or northern section of the north zone, surface trenching has indicated the presence of a flat-dipping, calcite-fluorite vein over 200 feet long and up to 6 feet wide; low radioactivity was noted. In the adit driven eastward below this vein structure no calcite-fluorite vein material was cut. However, urani nite crystals occur within a yellow-brown syenite dike, and a considerable amount of drifting was done on this uraninite-bearing zone. The uraninite occurs in crystals up to V2 inch in size along the contact and within the dike. A bulk sample sent to the Mines Branch at Ottawa is reported by MacKenzie to have averaged 0.135 percent U3O8 (chemical). Uraninite also occurs in a calcite-hornblende-mica vein 2 feet wide.