It was in 1892, when the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine had a workforce of 36 men that were employed under Captain Bluett/ Development work within the main open pit was being continued onward at this time, which was now about 85 feet by 100 feet at the surface, and had reached a depth of 70 feet.This resulted in the pit becoming much more narrow as it had gotten deeper in places through progressive development work. Most of these workings had also continued within stoping operations and sinking in the pit, from which about 100 tons of ore are being lifted daily. From here, the Adit level thats 6 by 8 feet, had been driven 85 feet in a southwest direction, with a large stoping at the entrance. At this time it was also suggest that no timbering would be required as the rock formation was considered to have been quite firm. A total of two steam drills were also in use, one in the open cutting and the other in the drift of the adit level. In addition to this equipment, there was also three air compressor Ingersoll Drills that were being used at this time. Much of the hoisting was also being done by a steam derrick, with the bucket holding a capacity of 1,200 lb. of ore that was dumped into a car and run out on a tramway 120 feet to the rock house. From here the ore had passed through a Blake Jaw Crusher , which was capable of crushing 150 tons in ten hours. It then had became screened and the three grades, fine, raggins and coarse, taken to the roast beds at Copper Cliff for containing, a distance of nine miles. Ore was rather handled in six ore cars that were load on a daily basis, being about two thirds of the entire quantity of ore treated in the two smelters at the time. Almost all the workings of this mine at present time were considered to have been neat and safe appearance, with the exception of a projecting rock over the mouth of the adit.
It was also in addition to the much larger ore-body exposed, that the ore had been materially improved in the percentage of nickel. This deposit of ore had rather been traced along the rise and at the top of the hill in a southwest direction for a distance of 500 or 600 feet. Further so, several test openings were also made at this time in which had been made along the lead passing through the gossan rich ground, showing fine bodies of nickel ore. As development and mining had continued, this would also require a large quantity of wood that was being collected at this point and three cars, reported about 37 cords that were taken daily to the roast beds, and the Copper Cliff Copper-Nickel Mine. Construction at this time was mainly aimed a building a boarding house and several other buildings that were suitable for the mining operation, which also included a house for the mine captain and his family.
By the end of 1892, the workings at the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine were extended within the open cut westward under the hill to a distance of 30 feet from the perpendicular wall and to the length of 70 feet. As development work had progress in this direction it would also be necessary to leave substantial pillars of ore in order to support the rock roof. To the east side of the much larger opening a skip roadway was being cut through the rock, over which the ore could be taken out of the mine and conveyed to the new rock house that was then being constructed by the side of the railway track. At this time, the southwest drift was also extended to the distance of 172 feet from the entrance and running in the direction to reach the ore-bodies as shown on surface, as described before. Apparently there was a fairly extensive amount of ore within the mine, and of much richer quantity than that obtained in the earlier working of the property. Construction had also followed with the development of a new engine house that had been built and two new boilers were set up of 75 H.P each, with the engines which are intended to give the motor power for all the machinery at the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine Site. Drifting within the adit workings had continued to become extended further and a raise was shortly after made towards the opening of the ore-bodies on the hill.
By lade June, 1893, only a minor amount of work at been done on the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine at the time. Most of the work was confined to trimming down the walls and some parts of the interior was fitted up under Captain John M. Jones, who had formerly been in charge of the Copper Cliff Mine. Development was rather escalating on the large size open pit operation which was partially filled with water, but could be quickly emptied when necessary to resuming lifting of the ore. By this time the newly constructed rock house was also officially completed, and had came with a substantial structure that was 40 by 50 feet and 70 feet in height. In order to operate this rock house, it had to also be supplied with a powerful Blake Crusher that was capable of breaking 125 tons of rock in ten hours, and had space provided on the floor for placing three others of equal capacity when required. Other designs were made towards the dump floor as it was to be covered with three quarters inch steel plate, which was on hand and ready to be put in place. Much of the whole was also fitted up with screens, chutes, etc., and a track underneath where the cars may receive the ore from the bins when sorted, crushed, and screened, to convey it to the roast yard at Copper Cliff. This was also equipped with a 30 H.P engine that was aimed at driving the crusher, screens, etc., while the steam was being supplied from the boilers placed in the adjoining engine house. This building which was situated at about fifty feet east of the rock house, had also been a fine structure in which two boilers were placed, each of 80 H.P. capacity, and a powerful engine had driven the large Ingersoll Air Compressor, capable of running seven three-inch drills. In addition to this, there was also two drums for hoisting the ore, which had engines attached of 40 H.P. each, capable of lifting with skip not less than four tons at each hoist. A large heater had also been added as it had heated the water before going into the boilers, and also an air receiver was added of large capacity. Other major construction at this time would also include the development of a good incline skip track that was being constructed from the dumping floor of the rock house to the open pit. It was also from the drums in the engine house that the strong steel cables had pass over pulleys and reach the upper apartment of the rock house and connected it with the skips, having a capacity of two tons each. Most of the machinery at this time had also not been started up, but was rather put up in a thoroughly workmanlike manner and of the most approved class. The whole outfit had presented a fine appearance, and the much larger outlay in the new plant had been warranted by the exposure of extensive bodies of ore.
Canadian Copper Company at this time had continued to operate its Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine Project in the Sudbury Area, of Ontario, Canada. The main open pit which was being developed and place into production was 130 feet west from the Rock House, which had a dimension of 47 by 90 feet, and had been sunk to the depth of 70 feet. This resulted in developing a bench westward from the open pit and near the tunnel of 30 by 47 feet, and from the floor to the surface was 30 feet. Development of a much smaller stope section had also been made under the hanging wall of the west side of the pit extending back by about 30 feet. A drift at this time was advanced westerly for 120 feet, with a stope at the entrance which was 26 by 36 feet with a raise of 25 feet. It was also at the west end of this drift where the stope had been raised to the surface, which had only left an open pit working that was 41 by 48 fet with a depth of 33 feet from the surface. In addition to this, there was also a skip trakc at an inclination of 30 degrees that ran from the top of the rock house down to the place of the workings in the open pit, which was a distance of 150 feet, and about 175 tons of ore were being trammed out daily. Machienry at this mine had consisted of two boilers, one hoist engine, compressor,Engine for the rock breaker, screens, and tables. A total of two skips had also operated while there was a small compressor and boiler idle at the time. Much of the rock house at this time was also considered to have been heavily laden with ore, and it had shown slight indications of spreading.
Water at this time was rather removed from the open pit and the skip track was now extended down to the bottom of the workings, at a depth of 85 feet from the surface. Development and production work at this time were aimed at extending the underhand stope down to 15 feet more during this time period. A total of three drills were rather being used at the time in which work was mainly being done on the side of the pit, taking out ore to the depth of the skip track. It was also from the open pit at the west end of the tunnel where another drift that was 8 b 9 feet had been driven to the west, and was advanced by 43 feet. This resulted in also using a total of two drills within the workings. and had shown on the register that 611 skips of ore of over a ton each had been taken out, and would include 66 skips of barren rock. During this time it was reported that the company's rock house had been staged and such care had been taken to not overload it with ore. As the ore becomes shipped, its previously considered to have been crushed before it had arrived at the roast beds in Copper Cliff. It was also at this time when the two boilers had rather been supplied with water gauges and safety valves that were being kept in good condition. There would also be a total of 80 lbs of steam that was carried, with a blow off at 88 to 90 lb. In order to this, cords of soft wood were also being consumed within 24 hours, and this resulted in gathering a large quantity of wood that was brought in and corded up at the railway track, before being convey to Copper Cliff on a daily basis. A total of 75 employees were employed to work 10 hour shifts per day, and about 180 tons of ore was being taken out daily and shipped to the roast yard. It was at this time when development would continue within the open pit operation as it now had reached a depth of 111 feet from the surface. This also included an additional length of 70 feet, which would make it have a total length of 116 feet, and an additional width of 7 feet was added, in which made it total 61 feet in width. The new drift that was driven from the other open pit had been worked at this time in which this would advance it by 7 feet to a total od 50 feet in length. Much of the main workings within the open pit were also considered to be quite safe at the time, in which a minor rock jutting had occurred near the skip track. Timber which was used at the skip track had also rather supported the roadway that was above, and had sprung and showed some signs of weakness, and new additional timbers were put down. Most of the work that was done on the Stobie Mine was suspended in December, which only had resulted in fitting it up for extensive operations that would be carried out in the spring. Other plans at this time were aimed at changing the skip track, as a shaft would be sunk from the bottom of the open pit, and levels would be driven in order to access high-grade ore that would be taken out. The powder house at this time was also situated at a distance of 200 yards from the main mining operation, and the main change room would also require lockers for the safe keeping of the clothes, This building was also being planned in order to be used for thawing operations of the explosives, but changes would be made towards this as it was fear to be unsafe.
By 1895, a total of eighty hands were employed within the mine workings and between 150 to 180 tons of ore was being taken out daily with day and night shifts. The Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine at this time was rather kept in safe operating condition as the pit walls were being thoroughly examined, which had not included the constant trimming by the men as development progressed. It was also at this time when a large ore-body was being opened up in the second level which was commonly intended to carry on the work throughout the season. Ore which was taken out at this time would also become crushed, and had been shipped by the railway to the roast beds at Copper Cliff. Some of the development work was aimed at additional stoping in the large open pit that was advanced by 17 feet, making it have a total length of 133 feet. This also included adding an additional stope that was 7 feet in width, making it have a total of 67 feet. There was no additions at this time made towards the open pit depth as it had remained the same as in 1894, which was down to 111 feet. From this point on, a winze had rather been sunk from the pit floor of level 1 or open pit, 60 feet, and had been 7 by 7 feet. This also resulted in a drift that was 7 by 7 feet and had been driven in a westerly direction under the tunnel of the open pit No. 2 for 65 feet. An incline shaft with an angle of 65 degrees was also sunk from the pit floor of level 1 to 75 feet of level 2. By this time, the shaft had rather also been changed above the floor of level 1 to an angle of 60 degrees for the distance of 81 feet, and would continue upwards to the further distance of 72 feet at an angle of 50 degrees. Much of the shaft from floor of level 1 and to the surface had rather been completely enclosed by substantial timbering as a protection to the mine, and for the safety of the workmen. Prior to this, it was also of sufficient width throughout its entire length for a convenient ladder-way which had been cased off from the skip track in the other part of the shaft. Other statements were also made on the good ladders that had extended from the collar of the shaft at surface down to the second level. It was within the second level that a stope had been made to measure 22 by 33 feet with a raise of 11 feet, and development work was also progressing towards the winze sunk from level 1. Most of this development work was rather aimed at providing good ventilation for the underground workings of that level and stoping would then commence from above. Some other machinery include a 3 inch discharge Cameron Pump that was being mainly used for lifting water to the surface from the workings. Generally, it was also stated that the Stobie Mine was also equipped with first class machinery, which was also being kept in good running order at the time
It was on July, 1896, when development when progressing towards stoping operations on level 2 that had been extended the extreme length of 100 feet, making an additional 67 feet, and a width of 16 feet, making the total 38 feet with a raise of 40 feet, which was an addition of 29 feet. It was at this time when the extreme distance had been measured, and as the stope has a slope upraise there had also remain underneath within the boundary a very large amount of ore to be removed. Development at this time when also progressing when the Winze had been sunk from the first level down to level 2 in which a connection was made, that would provide good ventilation and had shown a thickness of the roof of level 2 of 30 feet. Installations were also made on this level as a 4-inch discharge Cameron Pump was now being used as a way to keep the Level 2 workings free of water. A pump at this time was also place at a small lake that was three quarters of a mile distance and the pipe was laid therefrom to the mine to insure a full supply of water should the small stream near the rock house be insufficient to supply the much needed water supply. Shipments of wood has also taken place as cart loads of wood were being sent by railway line to Copper Cliff every day. Much of the daily output that came from this mine was also at 180 tons, and had its own total workforce of 80 men employed, 55 whom were on underground work. Work to the end of 1895, was mainly being confined to the bottom of the mine workings, in which it was north of the shaft on level 2 that an opening 150 feet long, with an average height of 42 feet, and a width of 31 feet was made. Another opening that was 51 feet long, 30 feet high, and 31 feet wide had also been developed at this time. In total length of these openings, it was reported that there was nearly 201 feet of development completed. To the south of the shaft, there was also another opening that was 40 feet long, 58 feet wide, and 20 feet high. Sinking at this time would also continue to progress as the main shaft and winze was being sunk together in order to achieve same mine depths between these two shafts as it was aimed a providing ventilation to the bottom of these working. Drifting to the north on the very first level was also ongoing at the time and the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine continued to become further expanded under the tunnel previously made. Ore which came from the Stobie was considered to have been at a much lower grade than some ore obtained from other mines in the area. The main reason for developing this site was mainly caused due to the fact that it was the Canadian Copper Company's best mining operation at the time.
Production that was achieved at the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine was producing nearly 180 tons of ore on a daily basis and had been sent over by cars to the roast beds near Copper Cliff after being crushed. Some additional work at this time had rather been done on level, or the open pit as a large stope had traverse near the floor at the north end and extended 69 feet in length, by 46 feet in width, and with a slope upwards to within 20 feet of the surface. It was at this point when an opening was made of six feet square that had been made to the surface and a ladder was placed leading down to the stope area. This opening had rather formed in a convenient way for going in and out of hte mine and had afforded free ventilation into the workings below. By this time the stope had rather extended down to the second level, and the stoped ore had fallen to the floor of this level, whence it is trammed to the shaft and raised to the rock house. Within the southern part of the open pit an understope had been made to open through to level 2 by a measurement of 53 by 54 feet. On level 2, to the north of the shaft, the stope rather extends 100 feet in length, which is 40 feet in width, and raised to 60 feet. To the south of this shaft, there was also a stope that was 84 feet in length, 45 feet in width, and had a raise of 60 feet, which made it have an additional 84 feet in length, nine in width, and 20 in raise. The total extent of this stope on this level had also been 184 feet in length, 45 feet in width, and 60 feet in raise. By this time, the shaft had rather been sunk by 65 feet to the third level opening at an angle of 65 degrees west. Prior to this, a winze had also been sunk between these two levels. in which a stope that was 23 feet by 66 feet with 23 feet raise and an incline of 69 by 25 feet had been made on this level. For the most part, stoping operations would continue onward as drifting for the time being was suspended, and the sinking of the shaft had reach 20 more feet with the winze being also sunk from Level 3. Hoisting of the ore for the time being was also discontinued on December, 24,1896. Construction at this time had also followed through as an addition was made to the changing house and a new cable was place on the hoisting system currently used in 1896.
By 1897, the main shaft at the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine was expanded on a 60 degree angle to fourth level that was cut. It was also generally considered that the depth of the incline from the third to the fourth level was 65 feet, and had its own cross section of 7 by 17 feet. Further expanding was also made at this time when a double track for skips had rather extended down to the second level at the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine. This at the time would also result in expanding the North Track that would end up reaching the lower level workings. The main shaft at this time had rather lied wholly within country rock on the most footwall side of the ore-body. All of the levels at this time were being reached by crosscuts in which some of these crosscuts were developed on curves. Its also on the fourth level where this occurs that opens directly as a large stope, measuring 51 feet long, 43 feet wide, and 60 feet in height. Work which was generally progressed at the time had been worked on two benches, or steps, with the upper step being 45 feet above the floor of the level. Further expanding would continue as the stope was being extended on ore towards the west and north parts of this mining operation. On the west side the ore face is rather being dressed at a point of 20 feet from the cross-cut preparatory to leaving a pillar to support the hanging wall. From here an uprasie, that seven by eight feet, extends from the most center part of the stope to the third mine level, being provided for ventilation purposes.
Development on the third level in 1897, was mainly aimed at opening it out as a stope section, that 78 feet long, 80 feet wide, and 70 feet in height. Work which was progressing on this stope was rather being worked on two benches and had its own upraise to the second mining level for air. No changes were made to towards the second level stop section, but some development was aimed at stripping the lower benches in order to access more ore, and the upper bench was being worked back by about 40 feet in a northerly direction, leaving a clean face which was to be cut around to form a pillar for the hanging wall. Access which was provide to this upper bench from below and from above through an upraise to the surface, which was approximately 50 feet vertically.
The Canadian Copper Company had progressed with its major mine development projects in 1898. It was at this time when exploratory work was being done and prepared for mining on the Frood portion of the mine. At this point in time, the mine was actually referred as the Six and Six Copper-Nickel Mine Project. Progress during this time was being made towards stripping the deposit, in preparatory to mining, which had been commenced West North West from the Stobie Copper-Nickel Mine, which is at distance of 2 miles. Exploratory work resulted in the sinking of two pits that were begun and it was at the most westerly point where a small trestle was built for 40 feet in length to a dump. Other plans at this time were being mainly aimed at building the much needed railroad from this new mine development project to the Stobie Mine Site.
Mining at this point in time was mainly progressing through the extensions of what they referred as stopes, which were really classified as chambers. These chamber had rather became created by the extraction of a large amount of ore masses that were taken out, hoist, crushed, and then shipped to the roasting beds. It was at this point in time when the second level stope now had a total length of 124 feet, a width of 45 feet,and a height of 75 feet. The third level stope at this point in time had a total length of 108 feet, a width of 80 feet, and a height of 70 feet. Another stope located on the fourth level had its own total length of 100 feet, with a width of 43 feet, and a height of 75 feet. Further observations were made towards the walls of the mine as they were not deem unsafe, and challenges were met with the stope out chamber sections in regards to safety. At this point in time, the main explosives magazine was also at a distance of 600 feet from the workings, and buildings, but the small magazine was so placed as to endanger the rock house and the upper stope of the mine in case of explosion. Some changes would shortly after become made as it was be removed 300 feet beyond a small rise of ground. Much of the system of ore winning was rather used but had began in steps, or brenches, but by irregular cutting back of a face of irregular shape, and considerable height, which leave no convenient means for access to the upper part of the workings. This had need to be done so that the men handling drills and carrying tools to and from are more or less danger of accidents.
It was about four miles northeast of the Lady Macdonald Mine, that a group belonging to a major built up of mines was in the mist of being explored and further opened. During this time period another ore deposit of importance is commonly known to occur at the Frood, or the new No. 3 Mine according to the later method of nomenclature It was less than 2 miles farther to the northeast that the Stobie MIne, at one point in time was the most productive mine in the district, but its ore was particularly low in grade. These two mine were rather predicted to have been connected by a band of gossan covered gabbro, which however has some breaks before the Stobie Mine is actually reached, and the two mines would be taken up together. Its also known for beginning at the southwest that the rusty surfaces of gabbro is first encountered at about 1,100 yards from the Frood as a band of indistinctly separated from the adjoining rock, which is graywacke and schist, that's often contains large pseudomorphs after staurolite. This band rather rises as a ridge of which is generally red-brown from the gossan, but is cut off by a narrow interruption of quartzite that's 600 yards southwest of the mine. The rusty gabbro from this point is known to quickly rise again and becomes widened greatly, until near the mine where it reaches its greatest width of about 200 yards. In this portion of its structural system it largely contains quartzite and graywacke to the southeast, striking about 40 degrees in the same direction as the norite itself. To the northwest the rocks adjoining it are more varied, but the rock immediate contact is generally diorite. Its beyond these rocks, which rise against each side of the gabbro, there are broad swamps. To the north of the mine the Gabbro hill typically dips down quickly into the swampy ground and is presently out of quartzite and green schist. Beyond the swamp to the northwest at about 200 yards distance a chian of granite runs parallel. This granite is rather describe as fine grained, flesh colored, and appear to be a part of the later granite mass observed near the Murray Mine two miles to the west.
At the Frood Mine (No. 3) the gabbro rise to about 90 feet above the low ground around, and showing an eruptive contact with the graywacke and quartzite on its flanks, but the hill is generally so covered with gossan that boundaries were not easily fixed. The large rock dump at this time had rather chiefly shown gabbro and greywacke, but also consists of some blocks of talc and actinolite. Ore is generally considered to be irregular, and greatly mixed with rock matter, and masses of the rock are enclosed in ore as a matrix. This is also among others that a pebble of white quartzite had been observed to be enclosed. The Frood Mine rather belongs to the International Nickel Company that is on the eastern edge of the gabbro and has been opened up by a large pit as well as underground workings. Opening at this point in time were made by another company on the northwestern side of the hill at the margin of the graywacke, but only on a small scale, and here the stakes were set at regular intervals over the ground to show that a magnetic survey has been carried out.
No additional changes were made to the Stobie Mine in 1899, in which only stoping was carried out. This at the time had rather largely consisted of working the back of the benches by the underhand method. The mine at this point in time was quite surveyed and the maps of its surface and underground workings were made. It was also the first time that this mine had revealed the true size and shape of the stopes and their relative positions more clearly. Work at the time being was rather suspended in the second level stope in which resulted in baring its access by a guard rail. Some other planning that was made at this time would result in opening up larger vents between the third and fourth level stopes, in order to improve ventilation to the lower workings.
During 1899, development was carried on as the No. 3 Mine (Frood) was changed from the previous Six and Six Mine. Development at this time was rather being carried on at the westerly deposit by means of a shaft that was 7 by 17 feet, and 40 feet deep, inclining at 62 degrees to the west. Development work on the shaft was rather provided with a man-way and a double skipway, with the skips being run in balance, operated by a drum in the power house. The shaft at this point in time would mainly become extended into an open pit that was 30 feet deep, 65 feet wide, and 80 feet long, which was open to the surface. Production at this time was coming from a stope located northwest from the pit, which was 30 feet wide, 20 feet high, and 15 feet long. Development from this stope had consisted of driving a raise to the surface, in order to facilitate underground work during the winter season. This was also the point in time when a rock house of oridinary type was being used by the Canadian Copper Company, and was once located to the east of the shaft area.The main rock house that was used at this time was 36 feet high, with a foundation being 45 by 26 feet. It was also on the ground where the floor was located that installation include that of an engine, that had driven the crusher, screens, and picking table on the second and third floors. Other construction include development on the trestle that was used for waste at this mine site and had extended for nearly 96 feet east of this building. Much of the power house at this time was of frame structure that was 80 feet north of the present rock house that was being used. The power house at this point in time had mainly consisted of one boiler room, and a hoist and air compressor room. Equipment that became added to this power house had included three boilers, and other appliances in this building were those formerly used at the Evans Mine. Another major building that became added for this time period was the use of a blacksmith shop that once had been situated 200 feet south of the rock house. Some other expansions at this time were being done on the standard gauge railroad of the Canadian Copper Company to the Stobie Mine that would become extended from the latter point to the rock house of the No. 3 Mine (Frood).
By 1901, mining operations at the Stobie Mine were suspended by November, 1901, as the Canadian Copper Company was turned away at much newer ore that could be developed. These at the time had include some extremely rich deposits of ore that would overcome the need at present for the highly ferruginous deposit in order to form suitable fluxing mixtures with the ore from the other mines. It was at this time that pumping operations were continued onward as this would only provide a much more speedy recovery for the future of the Stobie Mine. Other problems had shortly rise at this site when high-iron content had deem a looking into, but it was rather considered to have not been in demand at present conditions at the smelters. This resulted in the continuation of idleness that had still prevailed at the Stobie Mine, and even the water pumps had come to a complete stop.
Within 1900, the original and main pit had now measured a depth of feet, being an increase of 10 feet, and has an area of 300 feet long by 50 to 125 feet wide at the Frood location. Its general course at this time was being southeast-northwest. It was near the southeast end where a much heavier arch and pillar had supported the roof of complete barren rock. Further problems came from the necessity for carefully scaling of all the walls in this section, as in the other mines, it had been apparent and formed part of the routine work. It was from the face of the adit at the southwest side of the pit into which ore at the time was being trammed for hoisting, with the shaft being continued down to 60 feet below and dips 62 degrees northeast under the floor of the pit, and from the bottom of a drift that had been driven north-east for 100 feet, with a crosscut at 15 feet from the shaft northwest 20 feet making for the ore body in the new west pit. Work at this time resulted in timbering the extension of the incline into three hoist compartments that one was designed for waste and the two others for ore and a man-way. Active development had also commenced on another outcrop of rich mineralization that was situated 50 feet from the west of the main opening. Development at this time resulted in blasting a pit that would measure 45 feet deep, 100 feet long, and 60 feet wide with very clean ore on the wall and floor. Hoisting that was done within the Frood location had been achieved by a swinging arm derrick, that had used steel rope and bucket, and a hoist in the rock house. This was rather considered as temporary work that would become abandoned when the underground connections of the two workings would allow for raising everything up through the shaft. Some of the other equipment that was added at this time would also go on to include a return tubular boiler and the equipment of all with automatic stockers that had given sufficient steaming capacity for the rest of this plant that was design.
It was since last August of 1900, when mining operations that were being conducted within the open pit came to a cease in development and production. Most of the work during 1900, was mainly confined to further opening up the lower level workings of the new underground mining operation at the No. 3 Mine (Frood). Development that was taken place from the underground workings was being done below the pit floors, in which the small amount of ore produced from this development had contributed to the total output during this period of operation. Extensive diamond drilling that was commenced on the Frood section had rather defined the ore-bodies sufficiently in order to allow of future ore extraction by a systematic underground plan applicable to all conditions. This new development was rather considered to be one of filling, which only ore would be hoisted, the waste would remain in the stopes to be added from the rock dumps on the surface in order to complete the fill. The main shaft at this time had rather reached a depth of approximately 150 feet vertically, and was now being sunk from the second to the third level. Additional work that was required had resulted in carrying the back of the pit faces from the floor level, leaving them vertical all around, without appreciable enlarging of the area on the surface. The second level which is situated at a depth of 100 feet was opened out from the shaft area, which was timbered down to this point with a double skip road and ladder-way. Development on this level include driving a northeast drift for 100 feet, and at about 25 feet in a cross drift northwest 50 feet as an inclined upraise holding through into the open pit floor. This resulted in developing another southeast drift that was driven for 60 feet and then had continued south for 75 feet. At about 75 feet in the northeast drift an 85-foot vertical winze was sunk, that was 6 by 6 feet in size, and from the bottom the 3rd level was opened out. The third level at this point in time had reach a depth of 185 feet vertically from the foot of the winze to the ore-body that had been undetermined by a series of connected drifts totalling a length of 517 feet. It was also the foot of the shaft that had rather upraised at about 20 feet at 25 feet southeast of the main winze used. Other development work at this time was being aimed at making a connection between the 2nd and 3rd level of this shaft. On surface, it was the large balanced double drum hoist that would become replaced by a smaller one that was taken from the Stobie Mine.
Shaft operations at the No. 3 Mine (Frood) were being carried out from the second down to the third level workings at a depth 165 feet. Some major completions were done at this time when the timbering, skip road, and ladder-way was completed. From this point on it was reported that all work from underground was temporarily suspended and the water was once again allowed to rise until time as the ore from this mine is needed. A small amount of lateral development at this time was also being done on the 165-foot level, but no stoping was carried out. Development at this time had rather no escalated at the Stobie Mine location as both the Frood and Stobie Mines were closed down for the time being.
By 1911, development work would once again restart at the Frood Mine Site (No. 3 Mine), which had been closed since 1902. During this time period the Canadian Copper Company had completed thousands of feet in diamond drilling during 1910, and 1911, and a large tonnage of ore was blocked out. These new workings were rather situated to the west of the old shaft and open cut that was developed in 1902. Work at this point in time was rather started on a 4-compartment shaft which had now reached a total depth of 200 feet, where a station was being cut. The company at this time had also used a much smaller plant for this work, but it was proposed to install a permanent plant during the present year. It was also at this time when the Canadian Copper Company was building a railway line from Copper Cliff to the mine, which would have a total distance of three miles in length. Employment at this time was rather being done under the supervision and direction of Mr. M. Pickard who was the superintend and employed 50 men to this site.
During 1912, development work was rather being carried out on the No. 3 (Frood) mine project by the Canadian Copper Company. At this time, the No. 1 four-compartment shaft was additional sunk on an incline of 77 degrees, in which had been carried to the fourth level and drifting was begun at a depth of 400 feet. Stations at this point in time were additionally cut on the second, third, and fourth levels of the Frood section of the No. 3 Mine. Another shaft known as the No. 2 vertical three compartment shaft was located 625 feet northeast of the present No. 1 Shaft that had been sunk to a depth of 200 feet. In addition to mining, there was a lot of construction going on that consisted of building a steel head-frame at the No. 1 Shaft, a brick power house, and a large number of houses for the employees of the mine. The power line that was taken from Copper Cliff to the mine site was completed, as was also the railway line that connected the mine to Copper Cliff. It would also result in the installation of a 3-drum electric hoist and a 20-drill compressor that was place into operation at this site.
It was also in 1912, when the main shaft at the Frood Extension Mine was sunk during the year to a depth of 600 feet. A station at this point in time was cut and establish at a depth of 400 feet, and a cage was put in the central hoisting compartment to hoist and lower the men to this level of the mine. Work at this time was confined to further sinking the shaft, and plans at this time were aimed at reaching a depth of nearly 1,000 feet. Within this time period a transmission line from Victoria Mines was erected, with a power house built and preparations were made for its installation of a large size compressor.
The Frood Extension Mine shaft is rather situated on the northeast quarter of lot 7 in the sixth concession of McKim Township, which is a short distance from the No. 3 workings of the Canadian Copper Company. Shaft No. 1 is rather a vertical shaft operation with four compartments, that has a side of 21 x 7 feet, and had reach a depth of 900 feet below the surface in 1913. It was at this time when the first level station was cut at a depth of 400 feet, with a drift to the south for a length of 250 feet. From this point a raise was driven in order to connect with the No, 2 Shaft operation The second level of this shaft was rather stationed at a depth of 750 feet where a drift was driven southward for 200 feet. Timbering of the shaft at this time was completed to a depth of 850 feet, as the main bulkhead was being constructed at about 12 feet below the main ore-body that was first developed. During this time period it was also intention of the company management to continue this shaft down to a depth of 1,100 feet below the surface before mining is to be commenced in 1913. Shaft No. 2 at this point in time was a vertical shaft operation with a size of 5 by 9 feet, and was 208 feet deep at the time. At this point a connection was being made by a raise from the first level south drift, which was inclined at about 45 degrees.
By March, 1914, the Canadian Copper Company had began the installation of a new compressor and hoisting plant. Other expectations at this time were made to have this plant in operation by June, 1914, The hoist which would be installed for this plant is a Nordberg air-driven type, cylinders 23 by 23 inches by 48. A total of two drums were used which were 10 feet in diameter, and was constructed so that a third drum may be installed. Its speed at this time was 1,000 feet per minute, using a 1%-inch cable, and a 5 ton skip. The Nordberg compressor rather had a capacity of 2,800 cubic feet per minute. and was driven by a Westinghouse synchronous motor that was directly attached. This also resulted in placing two recievers, each being 30 feet long by 10 feet in diameter, and from these the air had passed into a re-heater before being delivered to the hoist, This also resulted in using any surplus air that was not required at the time within the mine site it self. In addition to the air plant there was also a Rand Compressor of 2,000 cubic feet capacity, that was belt driven from an Allis Chalmers Motor. Construction at the time would also take place on erecting several comfortable house for the miners, and a small village known as Frood Extension was incorporated. Other plans for the rock house, dry house, magazine, and thaw house were now ready, and these buildings would also be erected during the summer of 1914.
A total of two shafts were at this time in operation at the No. 3 Mine (Frood) site in which the No. 1 Shaft had reach a depth of 420 feet, and the No. 2 Shaft had its own depth of 350 feet. During this time period an ore storage pocket was additionally cut below the third level and near the main shaft. Other installations to the shaft had also equipped it with skips in two compartments and a two-deck men-cage was installed in the third. Stoping operation at this time were being carried on above the 200 and 300-foot levels. It was also above the 200-foot level that an open stope had extended to a height of 30 to 40 feet above this level at the time. By this time it was reported that this stope section was approximately 375 feet in length and 150 feet in total width at its most widest point. In order to assist in ventilation a 24-inch galvanized iron pipe had lead from the surface to the 300-foot level, which had a branch pipe at the 200-foot level. During this time period a fan was place on surface while a ventilatio raise was being driven from the 200-foot level to the surface when the shut down had occurred, and within 75 feet of the surface. Shipments during 1914, would also amount to a total of 87,688 tons that was taken out with the help of 125 men that were employed by Mr. Thomas P. McNamara, who was the superintendent.
In 1914, the Frood Extension Mine had rather operated until August, 15, 1914, before it was shut down due to the conditions of metal markets during the outbreak of World War I. By this time the vertical, four compartment shaft, that was 21 feet by 7 feet, had reached a total depth of 1,005 feet below the surface, and was timbered down to 917 feet. On the first level, or the 400-foot level a drift at this time had extended southeast for a length of 230 feet. From the end of this drift section a raise was then extended to the surface, and a winze had been sunk to a depth of 170 feet below the first level workings. It was on the second level at 750-feet where the drift rather had ran southeast for a length of 220 feet. By this time, it was at the end of this drift that a raise had also been extended in order to connect with the winze from the first level Another winze at this time had also been started near the end of the drift and was put down to a depth of 70 feet. On the third or 900-foot level, the station was only cut at this point in time and 210 feet of drifting was done to the southeast of the shaft operation. Other completions during this time period were made on the power house that consisted of one 23-inch and 23 inch by 48-inch Nordberg geared hoist with two drums, that were 10 feet in diameter with 78-inch faces. This was also equipped with air or steam, and provisions were made whereby a third clutched drum for hoisting men may be added when it was desired to. Much of this had also included one 2,800 cubic foot Nordberg air Compressor, one 1,750 cubic foot Rand air Compressor, belt driven, and the construction of the rock house and dry was being progressed when the shut-down had occurred.
The International Nickel Company of Canada, LImited was incorporated in the Dominion of Canada on July, 1916, withh an authorized capital of $5,000,000 which in March, 1918, was increased to $50,000,000. It was on August, 1918, when the Canadian Copper Company was absorbed by the International Nickel Company of Canada, Limited, and was now known as the mining and smelting division of that company. Almost all of the mine sites, and smelter that were owned by the Canadian Copper Company were under control of the International Nickel Company of Canada, Limited. This resulted in a major take over as the company had wanted to secure as many properties for exploration and development as it could in the Sudbury area, that would also go all over Canada and internationally. By this time, the company had also only operated two mines and a quartz quarry for flux that was used in smelting operations. These two mines that were being developed and place into production had included the famous Creighton Copper-Nickel Mine and The Crean Hill Mine Project. Almost all other operations during this time period were at a stand still and waiting to be further explored.
During the operating year of 1919, the International Nickel Company of Canada had rather curtailed its output of their mine projects and smelters in January of that year. But it was rather closer to the end of 1919, when the company was once again operating at approximately pre-war capacity. Other important innovations were made during this time period, as the establishment of a pension fund, scholarship, and group insurance was made. Employees at this time who had become incapacitated after twenty years of continuous service with the company or its subsidiary would be pensioned. Pensioners at this point in time were paid monthly for the general funds at a figure based on the average full time earnings for the last year worked. After 20 years service, the pension was at 50% of the average earnings, after 30 years of service 62 1/2 %, and so fourth in proportion to the number of years employed by the company. Employees who had work for the new company were not required to contribute to the pension fund and pensions at this time were granted under the executive directors of the company. Pensions at this time were not given for the reason that an employee had completed 20 years of continuous service, or had reached any stated age, but after 20 years of continuous service, old age, sickness, injury, or incapacity from any other cause may be considered sufficient reasoning for granting a pension.
By 1920, the Frood or No. 3 Mine was once again being explored for the experimental reasoning that was conducted by the International Nickel Company of Canada. Most of this resulted in bailing out the workings in order to obtain a 100 ton ore sample for experimental purposes. This would also result in completing some diamond drilling on the surface until power had become scarce owing to the summer drought that took place in 1920.
It was within 1925, when extensive diamond drilling was being done on the No. 3 Mine of the Frood portion. Some mining at this time was also additionally done by the Intenational Nickel Company of Canada for the months of June to October, 1925. Most of this work that was done on the Frood, or No. 3 Mine was aimed at stoping operation on the 3rd mining level. Ore which had came from the workings at this time were also being shipped to Copper Cliff for milling and smelting. It was at this time when a total of 28 men were employed at this site which was done under the direction of J. Brown who was the mine foreman in charge of this work.
During the operating year of 1925, the Mond Nickel Company had place the Frood Extension Mine into operation. This was chiefly done towards the development work that was progressing in the mine and the construction of the much needed surface plant. Underground development which was aside from shaft sinking had been mainly confined to the newly establish 1,400-foot level or the 8th level at the Frood Extension Mine Site. It was on this level that 650 feet of drifting and 400 feet of crosscutting was completed at an angle of 45 degrees. Most of the section cutting that was taken place had been done for the purpose of further defining the ore-body, that was done in four stopes: 8.1, 8.3, 8.3, and 8.4. These stopes when fully section cut would have a total width of 75 feet and a length determined by width of the ore-body, and would also be seperated from adjacent stopes by a 25-foot rib pillar. At this time, the main No. 1 Shaft at the Frood Extension Mine was sunk from 1,267 feet to a depth of 1,736 feet, with stations being cut on the 1,300, 1400, 1,550, and 1,700-foot levels. In addition to this sinking and station cutting, work was also progressing towards timbering the upper portion of the main shaft that was officially completed at this time. The main shaft that was used at the Frood Extension Mine was fairly well timbered and had a total of four compartment which was later change to only three compartments. This at the time had allowed for two hoisting compartments that were 5 feet by 4 inches by 4 feet, in the clear.
Construction would also follow in 1925, which resulted in building the following building to service the Frood Extension Mine Project that was owned and operated by the Mond Nickel Company. The dry house which was generally used as a change house was designed to be 106 by 32 feet, and had been built. This building at the time also had a 12-foot lean to extend the entire length on one side, which had provided accommodation for the shift boss office, and change, engineer's room, first aid room, and showers and toilers that were added. It was also in the basement in one end housing that the heating boiler for the entire plant was located and situated in.
The Machine shop in 1925, was a building that was 121 by 32 feet, with a tool and foreman;s room at the end of it. Some of the main principal equipment that were used at this time had included lathe, pipe threading machine, and an Ingersoll Rand, type 550, drill sharpener. The office and warehouse building was additionally made to be 90 by 30 feet, in which one end was used as a warehouse, while the other end is partitioned off to accommodate the mine offices and draughting rooms for the engineering staff. Another building known as the power house was additionally engineered to be 22 by 18 feet, that was built to the power house to provide for switchboard equipment. All of these buildings that are mention had are of brick and steel construction with Robertson's process roofing and with the exception of the blacksmith shop, having concrete floors.
During the summer months of 1926, a small amount of ore was rather mined on the 3rd mining level through the No. 1 Shaft at the Frood Mine (No. 3), and had been shipped to Copper Cliff for test purposes. Most of this work at the time had employed a crew of 16 m, that was place under the supervision of J.W. Brown. It was rather towards the end of September when preliminary work on the sinking of the new main shaft (No. 3 Shaft) was commenced. It was after sinking this shaft to about 40 feet with temporary rigging, that the concrete collar was placed and the sinking plant/head-frame was now installed. Work at the time was rather resumed at the face on December, 11, 1926, which was done using the regular sinking plant. The shaft that was rather vertical, had been sunk in the footwall of the deposit that was divided into four main compartments. One of these compartments had became subdivided in order to give a skip roadway in one corner, a pipe and cable compartment in the other corner, with a ladder-way between. At this point in time, the shaft was 16 feet by 28 feet, 2 inches, outside the timbers. All of the plate dividers and corner posts that were used had been 10 by 10-inches, the intermediate posts 6 by 10-inches, and all guides 4 by 8-inches.Hoisting which was done during the sinking operation had been completed by two 3-ton skips, that ran in balance, and were being used in addition to the man cage. All of these conveyances at the time had also been equipped with 30-foot extension runners, which had permitted them from being lowered directly to the face below the permanent timbering.Other changes would also be made when the shaft would be come equipped for pernament operation, that this would have allow the use of two man and supply cages with a deck area. It would also go on to include two ore skips, 5 by 5 feet in cross section, and a rock skip of the same section, which would operate in balance with a counterweight. All sinking operations during this time period were also being done under direction of J. P. Hussey.
Besides development of the Frood (No.3) Mine, the Mond Nickel Company had progress on their development of the Frood Extension Mine Site in 1926. It was during this time period when the shaft was sunk an additional 294 feet from 1,736 to 2,030 feet, with stations being cut at 1850, and 200 feet. On the 1,700-foot level the main crosscut that was advanced 150 feet to the footwall, and 1,050 feet of drifting was completed along the footwall contact. A total of ten crosscut series at an angle of 45 degree were made on the Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 2,4,6,8, and 12, which were driven from the footwall drift towards the hanging wall. During this time it was also the footage completed that would end up totalling approximately 1,200 feet in raising that was done. Further development had also continued on the 2,000-foot level that was advanced by 1,995 feet of drifting, and crosscutting. Some other construction at this time had included a brick powder magazine that was constructed on surface, and had measured 20 by 30 feet.
Development and expansion had continued onward at the Frood Mine location as the main shaft was continued to a depth of 2,500 feet. This resulted in completing preliminary work for the latter opening of cut stations from this shaft that was done at depths of 800, 1,200, 1,600, 2,000, and 2,400-foot horizons. During this time period a small shipment of ore was rather taken from the third level of the No. 1 Shaft, and was shipped to Copper Cliff for experimental purposes. No additional work was done at this time as the mine was only preparing to go under further development through much deeper levels that were establish in 1927.
It was in 1927, when development and shaft sinking was also progressing on the Frood Mine extension that was owned by the Mond Nickel Company. Within this time period the main shaft was continued from a depth of 2,025 feet to 2,167 feet below the surface. Aside from shaft sinking it was also reported that 3,989 feet of lateral development work was completed at the Frood Mine Extension during 1927. Most of this work at the time had comprised of 3,053 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 936 feet of raising that was done. All lateral development work was also being performed on the 2,000-foot level, in addition to which a large amount of diamond drilling was done from the three exploration crosscuts driven into the hanging wall on this level. No additional construction was done at this time as work that was undertaken during the year was made towards many alterations to the shaft house, head-frame, and rock-house to facilitate shaft sinking. Many of the shops at this time were also considered to have been rearranged to allow for the installation of a timber framing plant for handling the shaft setts.
It was during 1928, when the surface plant at the Frood Mine was completed, with a head-frame erected and the rock house in operation. For the most part, hoists and compressors had also been installed within the power-house. At the time, these hoists were among of the largest in Canada, and the main hoist was designed to handle skips containing 10 tons of ore from the 2,000-foot level and 7-tons of ore from the 2,800-foot level, and the cage hoist with a capacity for raising or lowering 60 men. This resulted in upgrading at change house that would be able to take care of 1,300 men, together with mine and survey offices that were in use. It was during this time period that the drill sharpener house, warehouse, machine shop, electrical repair shop, and boiler shop had been erected and most of the necessary machinery had been installed at the time. Much of the yard that had occupied the mine area was also graded and service tracks for supplies and ore were provided.
During 1927, good progress was made towards the underground mine workings at the Frood Mine Site. By this time the main shaft that 28 by 16 feet was completed to a depth of 3,040 feet below the surface and a ventilation shaft was now being sunk, which would end up reaching a depth of 1,200 feet.Lateral development at this time would also consist of 9,922 linear feet of drifting and crosscutting that was completed during this time period. In total development footage it was strongly reported that the mine amounted to approximately 13,762 linear feet. In addition to this, there was approximately 220,589 cubic feet of excavated stations and ore and waste pockets. By doing this work it was also stated that a total of 166,443 tonnes of rock was also hoisted in order to accomplish this work to date. Ore reserve calculations were not being made at this time as development work had not progressed sufficiently to report the exact tonnage or average grade of the metal contents in the lower workings of the Frood Ore-Body. Many additional crosscuts were driven and reserves were of high-grade ore that was sufficient to run a smelter for many years to come. It was on the 1,200-foot level, that 100 feet of ore had been crosscut and channel sample, which resulted in 1.77% Cu, and 2.61% Ni, with rock making up 5% of the total mass. On the 1,600-foot level there was an additional 48 feet of ore that had been crosscut and channel sample that had show copper assays of 2.90% Cu and 2.15% Ni, with the rock mass making up 9.3%. It was on the 2,000-foot level that 39 feet of ore was encountered that had been crosscut, and channel sampled showing 2.09% Cu, and 1.93% Ni, with a rock mass of 5.9%. Exploratory work at this time was also focus on the 2,400-foot level that had show 64 feet of ore that was crosscut and channel sample. Channel sampling of this section of the mine had rather returned copper values of 3.60% Cu, and 1.50% Ni, with rock mass making up 28%. On the 2,800-foot level, there was 139 feet of ore that had been crosscut and channel sampled that showed 12.14% Cu, and 2.66% Ni, with a total rock mass of 19.2%. At this time it was reported that much of the rock mass that was taken from this mine was removed in order to recover higher metal content from the ore at the Frood Mine Site.
Within 1928, the Mont Nickel Company would go onto reopening this property in 1927, which resulted in replacing the Victoria Mine Complex. It was during this time period when diamond drilling had disclosed 70 feet of ore running 22% copper and 1 1/2% nickel, and it was decided to sink the Frood Extension Shaft to a depth of 4,000 feet to prove this discovery. The Frood portion of the deposit was also considered to have increased its copper values ten times between the 2,000 and 3,100-foot horizons. By this time, the Frood Extension Mine had used a four compartment shaft operation that had been sunk to a depth of 3,350 feet below the surface. Sinking at this time was rather started on December, 3, 1927, and was completed in the spring of 1929. This resulted in stationing and cutting levels on the mines 400, 750, 1,200, 1,400, 1,700, 2,000, 2,800, 3,100, and 3,300-foot horizons.
Prior to 1929, it was reported that the Frood Surface plant was officially completed and had been place into successful operation during that year. Employment at this point in time of the mines life had resulted in employing 2,000 men, and underground development was no progressing rapidly. It was during the year of 1929, when 48,877 linear feet of drifts, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and box holes were completed, and this resulted in raising the ventilation shaft by 1,583 feet. This vast amount of work that was completed had aggregated nearly ten miles, bring the total underground development, since work started in 1926, to 64,291 linear feet or over twelve miles of development. It was at this time when communication was establish between the Frood Mine and the Frood Extension Mine, in which the ore-body was continuous on the 2,000, 2,400, and 2,800-foot levels. This resulted in further development that was aimed at connecting the two mine sites on the 2,200 and 2,600-foot levels of the Frood Mine workings. The proven ore within this deposit had also amounted to 124,673,000 tons, of which 43,562,000 tons is high-grade ore below the 1,400-foot depth. Extension sampling that was carried out had shown that the ore-body increases in grade and become progressively richer in copper with depth. This was rather indicated by assaying of ore taken from crosscuts, which resulted in submitting a report on December, 31, 1928. The average ore grade that was proven below the 1,400-foot level runs 2.39% Ni, and 3.62% Cu. It was also noted that over 10,000,000 tonnes of high-grade ore was added to the Frood reserves that were taken from results that came from development work in the lower level workings. Exploratory work that was performed on the 2,800-foot level had shown much greater widths and evidence of extensions along the strike to the north and to the south, which promises further substantial additions to the Frood high-grade reserves. This had also included a total reserve estimation of 91,111,000 tonnes of low grade ore and 43,562,000 tonnes of high-grade ore within the Frood Mine workings. Results at this time were also returned on the Bessemer Matte made on the Frood ore mined below the 1,600-foot level that returned several precious metal values of approximately $50 per ton.
Production in 1930, had rather rise as the Frood Mine at this time had gone to produce 902,531 tons of ore that were mined from the underground workings. The Frood Mine during this time was the International Nickel Company of Canada's biggest mine project that resulted in sufficient mine production from its other mining operations. At this point in time, the International Nickel Company of Canada had only operated two other mine that included the Creighton Mine and the Garson Mine asides from the Frood Mine. It was at this time that lateral development that included embracing shafts, drifts, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and box holes, that amounted to 50,803 linear feet, or nearly 10 miles. It was also in the past four years, that development work which was taken upon the Frood Mine had shown a total of 21.8 miles of work completed to date. By, 1930, the Frood Mine was rather furnished to produce 5,000 tons of ore on a daily basis and mining continued to be efficient that mining was steadily increasing. The Frood Mine at this time had also contributed to additional ore-reserves that were calculated at 2,416,000 tonnes. Reports on this calculation had reported it to have been made below the 2,000-foot level and would grade in excess of 4.93% Cu, and 3.53% Ni. During this time period it was reported that the Frood Mine had one of the biggest employment rates in the Sudbury area, as it amounted to a total of 2,076 personnel.
All development and exploration work in 1931, was reduced to a minimum in order to keep up with general curtailments. It was during this time period when later development that included shafts, drifts, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and box holes had advanced 12,074 linear feet. Other reports on the total development footage had also stated that this advancement in lateral development had made the mine have a total development footage of 127,178 linear feet or 24 miles of underground workings. A total of 61 stope sections were also in production, in which each had prepared to yield an estimated production of 150 tons of ore per day. Stoping operations at this time were majorly confined to the ,2,400, 2,600, and 2,800-foot levels of the Frood Copper Nickel Mine. Much of the greater part of this ore at present being mined mined by square set and fill method, and the remainder by horizontal cut and fill method. As shaft sinking had continued, it was at this time when a new level was cut and station on the mines 2,950-foot horizon. By this time the No. 1 Shaft, which had extended from the surface to 15 feet below the 3,100-foot level, had been utilized as a ventilation and emergency escarpment shaft. During this time period, work was confined to concreting and equipping it that was actively prosecuted, and had been completed in early 1932. Other plans at this time were aimed at fire proofing the surface plant and an additional two ventilation fan units, each capable of handling 220,000 cubic feet of air per minute, were installed at the top of the shaft.
Another Shaft known as the No. 4 had extended from the surface down to a depth of 3,345 feet, had also been equipped with a new head-frame, surface plant, and rock house. By this time, the shaft it self was rather being reconditioned for much higher speed skip hoisting to increase production at its Frood Copper-Nickel Mine Site. It was also included in this of which work was progressing in timbering of the shaft from the surface to the 2,000-foot level. By the end of 1931, a total of 1,500 feet of timbering was also reported to have been completed within the No. 4 Shaft operation at the Frood Mine Site. Expectations at this time were predicting to have this newly developed shaft ready for operation purposes by June, 1932.
Another Shaft known as the No. 5 was started in 1930, which was also completed and put into operation during the year of 1931. The shaft was mainly designed to have a total of three compartments which was designed to be an internal shaft operation, that inclined at 65 degrees. It was also reported to have extended from the 2,600-foot level to 77 feet below the 3,100-foot level. Development of this new shaft was additionally made near the No. 4 Shaft Operation, and was mainly used for development purposes below the 2,800-foot level.
Production that came from the Frood Mine had resulted in hoisting 1,336,040 tonnes of ore that came from this mine in 1933. The Frood Mine during this time period was kept in operation through the operating year of 1933. Work at this point in time was mainly aimed at increasing the production requirements from the Frood Copper Nickel Mine workings. A total of ten new stopes, and eight pillar stopes were being brought to the production stage in the Frood Mine, making available for mining 72 stopes rated at 150 tons each daily and 8 pillar stopes rated at 50 tons each daily. Mining cost at this point in time were rather considered to have been satisfactory, and capital/maintenance expenditure was considered to have been very low during this time period.
Within 1934, the Frood Mine was in continuous operation when a total of 1,868,186 tonnes of ore was taken from this mine and shipped. During this time period the Frood Mine was being place under further exploratory phases that were restricted the lower level workings and ordinary development was regulated to conform the ore requirements. Lateral development during this time period had included advancement in shafts, drifts, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and box holes that amounted to 19,937 linear feet, in which had brought the total development footage to nearly 31.7 miles. Other openings were made on the production of twenty new stopes and 5 pillar stopes that were place under production requirements from the Frood Mine Site. With this it had also brought a portion of available production in the Frood Mine that amounted to working 83 stopes and 13 pillar stopes. By this time, the average output within the stope sections was producing 140 tonnes of ore on a daily basis and ore that came from pillar stopes would produce 60 tons daily.
Development within the Frood Mine was also being carried out in steps with production requirements in place during 1936. By this time, the total footage was rather advanced by 30,628 linear feet of lateral development. This resulted in bringing the total underground workings to approximately 50 miles of completed development at this site. Most of this had came from the advancements in shafts, drifts, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and box holes that were completed during this time period of operating. With the opening and increase in development, this had brought with it new sufficient stopes into operation, or in readiness, to yield a daily output of 13,000 tonnes of ore. During this time period it was reported that the ore requirements from the Frood Mine were increased to processing 3,408,956 tonnes of ore.
During 1937, it was the result of a comprehensive survey that it was decided to adapt open pit mining methods for the upper portion of the Frood Ore Body. This resulted in installing equipment for this purpose that would increase the expected production to 4,000 tons of ore per day. Almost all of this production was scheduled to be available for mining by the early months of 1939. Much of the grade of the ore within the pit was also some what lower than that now being mined through underground mining operations. One of the advantages of this would be the greater importance of the combination of surface mining and mining ore at depth that would assure an average grade of ore over the future life of the Frood Mine Site. During this time period, the Frood Mine operation had continued to dominate the production of all other mines in which 3,804,409 tonnes of ore was shipped to Copper Cliff. The Frood Mine was only starting to become a massive mining operation that would be developed through extensive underground working and the new open pit operation.
The Frood Mine continued to become a major contributor to the production of ore that would amount to 3,497,846 short tons in 1938. It was at this time that open pit mining development was officially started at the Frood Mine Site, in which mining was commenced in June, 1938. Development at the time had rather become well advanced at this time which had also allowed for the increase in production at this mine site.. This mine continued to be the main supplier of ore that was produced from any other mine operated in which there was three mines in operation. It was at the year end when the open pit operation would go onto producing a million tonnes of ore that was developed and shipped by January, 1939. Lateral development at the Frood Mine had consisted of advancements in shafts, drifts, crosscuts, raises, winzes, and box holes that amounted to 16,337 linear feet of development work, in which the total development footage was at 303,274 linear feet.
Open pit mining at this time had continued onward in the operating year of 1939, which resulted in extensive development. Production that was achieved through open pit mining at this time had resulted in hoisting 1,521,694 tonnes of ore from the open pit. Plans at this time were also being made to develop and extended production by increasing the output of ore taken from the Frood Mine Site. Most of this was being done in order to achieve daily production rates of 12,000 tonnes from the open pit operation on the Frood Portion of the ore body. Development at this time had also continued onward through the underground workings that amounted to 23,053 linear feet, in which the total development footage was at 326,327 linear feet. This would also result in a program of open pit mining that was underway on the Stobie portion of the ore-body. The Stobie Mine had rather contributed to the ore-reserves as there was a large body of low-grade ore that existed at this site. It was also stated that this further development of open pit mining would afford greater flexibility in the mining operations and would permit the maintenance of a uniform grade ore over a long period of time. Production during the operating year of 1939, would also result in a total amount of 3,200,869 tonnes of ore that was taken from open pit and underground mining operations. Employment rates at the Frood Mine site were rather increased during this time period to about 2,639 personnel that work at this mine site.
It was more so in 1952, when a consequence from the heavy-war-time drain upon the open pits and their large post war output, it was anticipated that it would no longer be practicable to remove or from the Frood-Stobie ore-body through open pit surface operations. During 1952, the company was however, able to block out more ore that could be additionally mined from the surface. Open pit mining at this time was rather achieving ore production at lower end costs and had provided valuable flexibility to the company's mining operation, and production was still continuing. Production that came from the Stobie Section of the Frood-Stobie Mine was rather stepped up to 4,500 tonnes of ore daily, compared with 3,000 tons at the end of 1951. Plans at this time were also being made in regards to further increasing production by 1953, at the Stobie Section of the Frood-Stobie Mine project. Work during this time was also being largely continued on the 1,400-foot level crusher and the much needed ore pass installation. Development which was achieved on new areas of the mine had rather progressed rapidly in order to meet requirements of the conversion schedule. At this time, the new No. 8 Shaft at Stobie was rather completed to the depth as required for the present operations. By excavating this shaft from underground and working up from several different levels simultaneously, the project was finished some 20 months earlier than other-wise would have been possible with a saving of many man hours of labour. This would go onto resulting in the complete construction of the Head-frame, hoist, crushing plant, and change house addition required for the No. 8 Shaft project that were advanced sufficiently to ensure this shaft being available for regular hoisting operations by about mid year in 1953. At the Frood Section of the Frood Mine, another, low-cost bulk mining technique called blasthole method that was now used in principal mining methods. This had rather also differ from induced caving only in that explosives are used in order to break the ore. Development of the new mining block to the south end of the mine was also progressing above 1,000-foot level.
It was in 1930-31, when the Junior Frood Zone was discovered on Lot. 8 and on the N 1/2 of Lot 9, within the first concession of Blezard Township. The main zone at this time was rather being explored by the Junior Frood Mines, Limited. Most of this had resulted in minor trenching and diamond drilling work that was done on this property. From 1953-58, Falconbridge Nickel Mines, Limited, had optioned the property from Frood Deep Nickel Mines, Limited. Geological mapping and exploration work that had taken place disclosed two new zones containing nickel-copper sulphides with a strike length of 500 and 600 feet. A total of 17 surface diamond drill holes were made on these two zones that were intersected at a depth of 846 and 4,835 feet below the surface. The No. 1 Zone, which had only two surface holes done would go onto intersect 5-foot sections assaying 1.09 and 1.40% Ni. It was in zone No. 2, when 3 surface diamond drill holes had intersected 23 feet of 0.70% Ni, and 0.15% Ci, with a 1-foot intercept of 1.93% Ni and 0.15% Cu, and it had also included a 14-foot intercept of 1.29% Ni, and 0.25% Cu.
By 1955, the International Nickel Company had reported that the ventilation system of the Stobie section above the 1,000-foot level was near completion. During this time period reports were also made on the air intake system for the Frood section was extended. Most of this extending was mainly done in order to permit stoping operations that would be done on the 3,600-foot level of this mine project. It was also the increase in underground production over 1954, was partially cause due to higher outputs from the Frood-Stobie Mine and the Murray Mine Site. It was at this point in time when special steps were taken in order to make available of an additional 3,500,000 tonnes of ore for mining by low-cost open pit methods. In order to complete this phase, it had resulted in driving two ore-haulage tunnels with an aggregate length of 2,200 feet in the rock walls at the Frood-Stobie Open Pit. This at the time would additionally bypass a large portion of the main ramp road around the sides of the open pit. As a result, the ore in the ramp wound no be recovered from the surface rather than by underground mining methods.
Lateral development work had continued onward at the Frood-Stobie MIne Site that resulted in completing 5,683 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 1,693 feet of raising. Development work at this time was continued through underground mining and open pit mining operations. Production during this time period would amount to 3,503,039 tonnes of ore that was hoisted from the workings. Open pit mining operation on the Frood Portion had continued to achieve production status by hoisted and trucking 593,674 tonnes of ore to the Rock House. Diamond drilling that was completed at this time would also result in 33 underground holes, totalling 9,315 feet in length. The Frood Mine at this time had rather employed 2,701 personnel that had work on surface and within the underground mining operations during 1958.
It was on September, 24, 1959, when a Strike had rose against the company that would be called by the union. This major strike would cause a shut down to all of the International Nickel Company's mining operations within the province of Ontario, Canada. It was considered to have been one of the most major strikes to have occurred in the Sudbury District since the discovery of the nickel ore-deposits. The strike at this point in time was also being settled and had taken the company up till December, 22, 1959, to end it. By this time, development was already progressing as the No. 8 Shaft was additional sunk down to a depth of 2,491 feet below the surface. As development and sinking progress it was decided to cut and station a new mining level that would be developed as the 2,000-foot horizon of the Frood ore-body. Lateral development that was also completed during this time period would result in 9,227 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 2,783 feet of raising that was done. Mining during 1959, was rather escalating through open pit mining operations and underground mining that was taken place. Production that was achieved within the Open Pit of the Frood Ore-body would end up amounting to 1,518,021 tonnes of ore that was trucked to the on-site rock house from the open pit operation. In total production the mine would go onto shipping 4,850,615 tonnes of rich copper-nickel-PGE ore to the Copper Cliff Concentrator after crushing.
During 1960, the No. 8 Shaft was additionally sunk to greater depths of 2,624 feet below the surface at the Frood-Stobie Mine Sites. By this time it would result in stationing and cutting a new level to the underground workings that were done on the 2,600-foot horizon. Lateral development work which was completed during 1960, resulted in 13,616 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 4,084 feet of raising. This at the time had brought the total development footage to 488,719 feet of drifting and crosscuts, and 189,811 feet of raising. Diamond drilling at this time had rather resulted in completing 88 diamond drill holes from underground that totalled 31,695 feet in length. Production at this time would also resulted in hoisting nearly 5,672,029 tonnes of ore from underground and open pit mining operations. Some of the newer equipment that was added had included a jaw crusher, a tipple unit, a 300 H.P motor, 2 controllers, and 2 silicon rectifiers. It was also at this time that a total of 732,681 tonnes of ore was also mined from the open pit and trucked to the rock house.
Lateral development during 1961, resulted in completing 14,840 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 6,927 feet of raising. With this it had given the Frood Mine a total development footage of 503,599 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 196,738 feet of raising. Diamond drilling during this time would also result in completing 35 underground diamond drill holes, totalling 6,739 feet in length. Work in the Frood Open Pit was officially terminated by the end of May, after being in operation for 23 years. During this time period it was advise to continue operating the service shops, but much of the equipment at this time was being transferred to the Clarabella Pit. Production from the open pit during this time period resulted in taking out 403,762 tonnes of ore that was trucked to the rock house for crushing. The total production which was achieved at the Frood-Stobie Mine site had resulted 5,614,371 tonnes of ore that was shipped to Copper Cliff.
Mining operation in 1963, had continued to progress as the Frood-Stobie Mine was being operated through underground mining operations. It was at this time that production was rather decreased due to the open pit closing in 1961. From all production during this time period it was reported that the mine would go onto achieving daily production rates of 3,609 tones, in which 921,997 tonnes were shipped to Copper Cliff. Lateral development had continued to become further achieved as it would amount to 7,014 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 2,416 feet of raising. Diamond drilling during 1963, had amounted to completing 98 underground diamond drill holes, totalling 34,751 feet in length.
The Frood-Stobie Mine continued to be one of the largest mining operations to have operated in the Sudbury Mining Camp in 1964. It was at this time when world records were broken as an underground blast had occurred on the Stobie part of the Frood-Stobie Mine Site. This was rather a major blast for its time period that would end up breaking down 3 1/2 million tonnes of copper-nickel-PGE ore and 1 1/2 million tons of waste rock. During this time period it was reported that the blast that had occurred was well organized and contained that its impact was less noticeable than an ordinary open pit bench blast. To allow this to have happened it was stated that the blast was carefully prepared and supervised by the underground engineers, various service departments, and the men that were engaged in making this record underground blast happen. Development at this time had continued to take place that would amount to 13,268 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 4,729 feet of raising. This at the time, had brought the mine to a total development footage of 546,292 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 216,317 feet of raising. DIamond drilling consisting of eighty-one holes would end up totalling 9,008 feet in total length that was completed. Production at this time would also achieve an output 4,741,402 tonnes of ore which was taken out at a daily average of 18,307 tons. Employment that was done within the Frood-Stobie Mining operation had amounted to employing 2,588 personnel towards this copper-nickel mining operation.
Much normal mining operations would continue throughout the operating year of 1965, as expansions were once again being done at the Frood-Stobie Mine. It was during this time period when preparations were made towards the sinking of the No. 9 Shaft. The No. 9 Shaft was rather designed to be a vertical, three compartment shaft operation that was sunk to a depth of 43 feet below the surface. Preparations at this time were being made in order to use this new shaft for servicing the future mining operations at the Little Stobie Mine. This would also provide access to additional tonnage that could or would be produced from the Stobie Section of the Frood-Stobie Mine. Lateral development was also continued onward at this time which resulted in completing 25,536 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 4,716 feet of raising that was done. Diamond drilling during this time period would also amount to 20 underground diamond drill holes, totalling 2,017 feet in length. The workings by this time would also have their own total development footage of 571,828 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 221,033 feet of raising. Construction at this time was also followed through by erecting two new buildings that were used for the Frood Sewage Treatment Plant and the second one for the Stobie Sewage Treatment Plant. Production at this point in time would also amounted to shipping 6,020,460 tonnes of ore that was obtained at a daily average of 23,096 tonnes hoisted.
Development and further sinking of the shaft was rather progressing as the No. 9 Shaft had reached a depth of 1,100-feet below the surface in 1966. The vertical, three compartment shaft that was sunk at this time would additionally cut and station the 600- and 1,000-foot levels at depths of 578 and 977 feet below the collar. Further preparations were being made towards using this shaft to service future operations at the Little Stobie Mine Site. Other plans at this time were made in regards to taking out additional tonnage that would be produced from the Stobie Section of the Frood-Stobie Mine. Lateral development work at this point in time would additionally consist of 35,230 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 6,094 feet of raising. This had brought the total development footage of the Frood-Stobie Mine to 607,058 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 227,127 feet of raising. Diamond drilling had also continued at this time which resulted in completing 75 underground holes, totalling 7,196 feet in length. Upgrades would also be made as a considerable amount of new and replacement equipment that was similar to additions at Creighton Mine were installed underground and on surface at the Frood-Stobie Mine. Production during this time period of operating had amounted to shipping 4,964,399 tonnes of ore to the Copper Cliff Concentrator and Smelter. Most of this production was rather being achieved at a daily hoisting rate of 21,105 tonnes of ore that was taken out from the Frood-Stobie Mine. Ore which would be mined from the Little Stobie Mine would generally be crushed before falling into a 3,500 ton storage bin discharging the ore onto a 60-inch picking belt which feeds the nearly 1 mile long conveyor across to a 6,500 ton storage bin at the Frood-Stobie No. 9 Shaft.
Development and further expansions of the vertical, three-compartment No. 9 Shaft were additionally under way in 1967. Shaft sinking during this time period would result in establishing a depth of 2,679 feet below the surface. Lateral development at this point in time was mainly aimed at cutting and stationing the 1,400-foot, 1,800-foot, 2,200-foot, 2,400-foot, and the 2,600-foot levels. Each of these newly developed stations were additionally cut on the 1,376, 1,792, 2,193, 2,404, and 2,604-foot horizons of the No. 9 Shaft. Most of this development was aimed at servicing future operations at the Little Stobie Mine as well as additional tonnage that could be produced from the Stobie Section of the Frood-Stobie Mine Lateral development which was completed at this time would result in advancing this mine by completing 35,751 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 10,130 feet of raising. This would additionally bring the total development footage at the Frood-Stobie Mine to 642,809 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 237,257 feet of raising. A limited amount of diamond drilling was also done during 1967, which resulted in drilling 91 underground drill holes, totalling 9,003 feet in length. Upgrades at this time were ongoing as the mine was getting new replacement with suitable deep underground mining that was already in use at the Creighton Mine. From all production within that time period of operating, the Frood-Stobie Mine would onto shipping 5,230,803 tonnes of ore to Copper Cliff, at an average of 20,118 tonnes being hoisted daily.
The Frood-Stobie Mine project was becoming a fairly large mining operation that consisted of two separate ore-bodies, the Frood and the Stobie Sections. in 1968, the mine was further being expanded as the No. 9 Shaft would be sunk 95 feet to a depth of 2,774 feet below the collar. It was anticipated in using this shaft to facilitate mining operations at the Little Stobie Mine and to develop additional tonnage of ore in the future from the Stobie Section. Lateral development continued to be extensive when 51,554 feet of drifting and cross-cutting, and 12,001 feet of raising was completed. By completing this lateral development work it had brought the development footage of the mine to 694,363 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 249,258 feet of raising. Ore production that was achieved had resulted in shipping out 6,806,431 tonnes of crushed ore to Copper Cliff. Some of the major surface construction that was done at this time had resulted in making extensions to the Change House, and Warehouse. This would also go on to include a hoist and compressor house extension, a prefabricated metal building, a substation at the No. 7 Shaft with tunnel and foundations of varying dimensions. Diamond drilling at this time would result in completing 89 underground drill holes, totalling 6,186 feet.
Normal operations were being carried out with some expanding being done besides for lost time due to a strike action from July 10 to November, 14, 1969. By this time the No. 9 Shaft was in full use as it was facilitating operations at the Little Stobie Mine and had additionally access tonnage that could be produced from the Stobie Section of the Frood-Stobie Mine. Development was rather becoming rapid at this time that resulted in advancing the workings by completing 40,608 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 6,973 feet of raising. A minor amount of diamond drilling was done at this time when a total of 17 underground drill holes, totalling 6,434 feet were completed in total length. From all lateral development completed this would bring the Frood-Stobie Mine to have a total development footage of 734,971 feet of drifting, and crosscutting, and 256,231 feet of raising. The total production at this time had resulted in shipping out 4,947,765 tonnes of ore that was produced at the Frood-Stobie Mine Project.
No additional shaft sinking work was done within the Frood-Stobie Mine, and development had continued to progress on the Stobie Section of the ore-body in 1970. The mine at this time was becoming fairly large in size and had many branch networks of drifts and crosscuts that were made or advanced. Lateral development at this time would result in the completion of 53,885 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 15,910 feet of raising. This would additionally bring the total development footage of the mine to 788,856 feet of drifting and crosscutting, and 272,141 feet of raising. Diamond drilling which had amounted to completing 113 drill holes, totalling 3,904 feet from underground at the time. Some of the major construction at this time was done towards the Supervision Office, ,mine ventilation structure, and renovations to a punch clock and lunch room area. The total production that was achieved and shipped from the Frood-Stobie Mine had amounted to 7,834,040 tonnes of ore that was taken to Copper Cliff.
In 2017, Vale had planned to shut its Frood-Stobie Mine operation down as it was approaching its mine life after being in operation for 100 years. Other problems were face with the much lower grade ore that was deemed not economical to mine at today's market prices in Copper-Nickel. Some other factors to this proposed shut down had included a decline in ore quality and the fact that miners were being prevented from working below the 3,000-foot level due to seismic activity. Plans at this time were aimed at bringing the Frood-Stobie mine under care and maintenance, which was aimed at starting this procedure immediately. This however did not mean that the mine would not re-open as it had contained a high-tonnage reserve of much lower grade ore that could be mined if Nickel prices were to go up. Another ore zone which is in close proximity to the Frood-Stobie Mine is the Junior Frood Prospect of much higher grade ore reaching depths of 4,835 feet.
Geology of the South Range Frood-Stobie Cu-Ni-PGE Sulphide Deposit
The Frood-Stobie Mine is rather apart of the south range deposits that includes massive inclusions of bearing sulphides that are overlain by contact sublayer quartz-diorite which contains 60% disseminated sulphide . These inclusions are rather exotic mafic and ultramafic rocks and footwall rocks. Generally, the sulphide content rather decreases upward in the quartz-diorite to about 20%. This large scale deposit is known for straddling the contact between the Sudbury Igneous Complex and the Footwall Rocks, which are supracrustal rocks of the Huronian Supergroup, and granite of the Murray Pluton. The Murray Pluton rather comes in connection with the Frood-Stobie Complex to the North-East of the property where the Little Stobie Mine is located. The surface of the gabbro-diorite rock is rather heavily gossan stained and contains diorite and schist in places.
Rocks of the South Range Deposits have largely been effect by a strong metamorphic overprint which established a low to medium pressure prograde event, that climaxed at medium grade immediately to the south of the Sudbury Igneous Complex. Its also the South Range Norite that is rather a medium to coarse grained, black rock consisting of cumulus plagioclase and hypersthene and inter cumulus quartz, augite, magnetite, and ilmenite. Primary hornblende mantels pyroxenes with some amphibole that is also metamorphic in origin are also present. This includes a rather faint igneous lamination that is rather defined by the orientation of Plagioclase crystals. The quartz rich norite is much finer grained than that of the South Range Norite, which contains up 20% quartz, and up to 25% biotite and exhibits no igneous lamination. The quartz-granophyre content is rather known to increase towards the lower contact.
The Contact that's between the South Range Norite, and the quartz gabbro of the Middle Zone is gradational with a decrease upwards in the content of hypersthene, and an increase in quartz, augite, magnetite, ilmenite, and apatite. Quartz and Granophyric intergrowth of feldspar and quartz rather increases upwards in the middle zone. The Granophyre of the South Range is rather deformed and altered, but where its slightly deformed it is very similar to the North Range Granophyre. The Frood-Stobie Mine is also apart of an offset dyke which is commonly referred as the Frood-Stobie Offset. Mineralization within the mine itself generally consists of pyrite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, silver, bismuth, galena, bornite, hessite, and schabachite. The main country rock on the surface is largely made up of diorite, gossan, iron, gabbro, schist, and quartz-diorite rock. Mineralization within the Sudbury area is widely associated with alterations in which have caused a few changes toward the precious metal content distribution in these large Copper-Nickel ore-orebodies.
Its also within the South Range Deposits that the basal member has been locally tectonically transposed or faulted in place within the Gray Member, in which it may appear to be much thicker. Fragments that are associated with the Basal Member include generally quartz arenite, with much lesser arkose, conglomerate, feldspar-sericite schist, and quartz. These distinct features can actually be observed within the swamp areas as the feldspar sericite schist dies out in these areas. Fault lines can also be notice in vicinity of the Frood-Stobie workings which probably either displaces the South Range Deposit or it becomes lower in grade.
Footwall Rocks that are generally in the South Range are rather Paleoproterozoic in age and consist of a thick sequence of mafic to felsic metavolacanic rock, coeval felsic to mafic subvolcanic intrusions, cyclic sequences of coarse to fine clastic metasedimentary rock, subsequently intruded by Nipissing Gabbro Intrusions . The metavolcanic and sedimentary rocks are widely apart of the Huronian Supergroup that dates between 2450 to 2300 Ma, and has been affected by the Penokean orogenic events including folding about east-northeast trending fold axes and by greenschist to amphibole grate metamorphism.
The South Range Breccia Belt is an arcuate, 45 km long zone of Sudbury Breccia in the South Range of the 1.85 Ga Sudbury Impact Structure. The belt generally is considered to vary in thickness between tens of meters to hundreds of meters which is composed of a polymictic assemblage of Huronian Supergroup, Nipissing Diabase, and Proterozoic Granitoid breccia fragments ranging in size from a few millimeters to tens of meters. The South Range Breccia Matrix is composed of a fine grained assemblage of biotite, quartz, and Ilmenite, with trace amounts of plagioclase, zircon, titanite, epidote, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and occasional chlorite. The Sudbury South Range Breccia Belt is rather considered to host the Frood-Stobie, Vermillion, and Kirkwood Quartz Diorite Offset Dykes, with the former being associated with one of the largest Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide deposits in the World.
The Elsie Mountain Formation rather outcrops across the map are from the Frood-Stobie Mine. This formation is about 1,000 m thick at its most widest point, along the Blezard-Garson Township line. Much of the base of this formation is rather considered to be quite intrusive contact with the norite of the Sudbury Igneous Complex except in the west where the Murray Granite intrudes it. Regionally, its also the upper contact with the Stobie Formation that's comfortable and gradational and is placed where metasedimentary rocks exceed 15% of the unit. Mafic metavolcanics are considered to comprise of 90% of the rock types that are found within the Elsie Mountain Formation. Majority of these rock types are also thick, with massive flows that occur with minor gabbro intrusion. Its also due to the high-grade metamorphism, that only major structures have survived such as pillows, pillow breccia, and hyaloclastite and amygdules. Rocks are generally considered to also be much darker green to black on fresh surface and are typically black on much weather surfaces. The Black colour is rather a stain resulting from smelting and refining operations and obscures which many of the diagnostic features are normally seen on outcrop surfaces at this metamorphic grade.
Its the much poorly reserve pillows, pillow breccias and hyaloclastite that are interbedded with massive, medium grained flows. Pillows that are seen in places, can be up to 40-cm long by 10 to 15-cm thick, occurring with a 4-5 meter thick horizon that's considered to represent bedding. Horizons of the pillows and pillow breccia-hyaloclastite are generally more strongly foliated than the massive flows. The top of this formation is rather characterized by quartz filled amygdaloidal flows, in which some of these flows have up to 85% amygdules and gas cavities
The Stobie Formation outcrops between the Frood-Stobie Mines Complex in Blezard Township and northwest of the towns of Garson, at a distance of 9,600 meters. Its also between the town of Garson and the eastern boundary with Falconbridge Township, that the formation is not exposed. The much thickest part within the general area is about 1,800 meters and it rather thins to the east. Reports made by Debicki had stated that a thickness of 1240 meters in Central Falconbridge Township had been observed, while thinning to the south. Other predict that the formation it self thickens to the west and comprises of interstratified mafic flows, tuffs, and intrusives, sulphide rich siltstone and wacke, quartz feldspar arenite and conglomerate. Most of the rock types that are found within the Stobie Formation included mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks. Most of the mafic metavolcanic rocks are predominately found as a narrow unit just beneath the Copper Cliff Formation in Garson Township and as isolated blocks in Blezard Township. Intermediate metavolcanic rocks are also found as isolated blocks within Blezard Township.